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I am a progressive MS patient. Do CCSVI and CCSVI Treatment pertain to me?

There is nothing in the theory of CCSVI (its causes or treatment) that excludes progressive MS patients.

Dr. Zamboni included a small sample of secondary progressive and primary progressive patients in his study. He found that they also suffered venous abnormalities. In some cases it was stenosis, which is theoretically repairable. In other cases they suffered from hypoplasia or agenesis (deformations, probably congenital, where the vein was never fully opened and/or completely formed). These conditions cannot be corrected by the balloon angioplasty that Dr. Zamboni was using.

In general, PPMS patients in Dr. Zamboni’s pilot study did not experience any long term improvement in condition. However, the numbers of patients in Dr. Zamboni’s study who had PPMS (10) was too small from which to make statistical or scientific statements about treatment outcomes. Moreover, Dr. Zamboni’s measurement criteria for PPMS patients may not have been ideal (for more information on this, see the Efficacy section in Treatment and Efficacy).

Ideally, more MS patients with PPMS will be included in future studies.  Until then, we must wait to make any conclusions about CCSVI treatment effectiveness and PPMS patients. Note that progressive patients are currently involved in the Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (BNAC) studies; as results are made available, the relationship between vascular issues and types/stages of MS may become increasingly clear.


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