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481 Results Found

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501 Fixing the jugular flow reduces ventricle volume and improves brain perfusion. P Zamboni, E Menegatti, C Cittanti, F Sisini, S Gianesini, F Salvin, F Mascoli Oct-2016 Abstract This study found fixing the flow in the jugular veins in people with CCSVI might significantly reduce brain ventricle volume and improve cerebral perfusion. The changes were more evident in people in earlier stages of neurodegenerative disease. 11-03-2016
505 Cerebrovascular pattern improved by ozone autohemotherapy: an entropy-based study on multiple sclerosis patients. F Molinari, D Rimini, W Liboni, UR Acharya, M Freanzini, S Pandolfi, G Ricevuti, F Vaiano, L Valdenassi, V Simonetti Oct-2016 Abstract This study found that ozone therapy improved the cerebrovascular pattern in people with MS. 11-03-2016
504 A comparison between the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus: is pulse wave encephalopathy a component of MS? GA Bateman, J Lechner-Scott, RA Lea Sep-2016 Full Content This was a study of 20 people with MS, aged matched controls and people with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) The blood flow and pulsation changes in people with MS were in the same direction as people with NPH. This finding is consistent with an underlying pulse wave encephalopathy component in MS. 11-03-2016
508 Lymphatics in Neurological Disorders: A Neuro-Lympo-Vascualar Component of Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease? A Louveau, SD Mesquita, J Kipnis Sep-2016 Abstract With the discovery of lymphatic vascular drainage in the central nervous system (CNS) the authors propose that MS and Alzheimer's disease should be viewed as diseases with a neuro-lympo-vascular component and therapeutically targeted as such. 11-03-2016
502 Vascular Disease in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Review MG Caprio, C Russo, A Giugliano, M Ragucci, M Mancini Aug-2016 Full Content This review suggests recent evidence indicates vascular components may be initiating triggers for neuronal pathology and subsequent neurological manifestations of MS. 11-03-2016
506 Chronic iron overload induces gender-dependent changes in iron homeostasis, lipid peroxidation and clinical course of experimental autoiummune encephalomyelitis. B Curko-Cofek, TG Kezele, J Marinic, M Tota, NS Cizmarevic, C Milin, S Ristic, B Radosevic-Stasic, V Barac-Latas Aug-2016 Abstract This study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice found that men and women during MS might be differentially vulnerable to external iron overload. 11-03-2016
503 “Venous congestion” as a cause of subcortical white matter T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance images JH Kaamble, K Parameswaran Jul-2016 Full Content This article discusses cases in which “venous congestion” plays a major role in T2 hypointensity. T2 hypointensity is found in MS. 11-03-2016
495 Cerebral Microbleeds in Multiple Sclerosis Evaluated on Susceptibility-weighted Images and Quantitative Susceptibility Maps: A Case-Control Study. R Zivadinov, DP Ramasamy, RR Benedict, P Polak, J Hagemeier, C Magnano, MG Dwyer, N Bergsland, N Bertolino, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Kolb, D Hojnacki, D Utriainen, EM Haacke, F Schweser Jun-2016 Abstract Significantly more people with MS (19.8%) than healthy controls (HC) (7.49%) had evidence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). Increased number of CMBs was significantly associated with increased physical disability. 11-03-2016
497 Cerebral blood flow modulation insufficiency in brain networks in multiple sclerosis: A hypercapnia MRI study. O Marshall, S Chavla, L Pap, Y Ge Jun-2016 Abstract This study of 28 people with MS and 28 controls found significantly less cerebrovascular reactivity in people with MS. Such blood flow regulation abnormalities may contribute to functional communication disruption in MS. 11-03-2016
509 Oscillatory flow suppression improves inflammation in chronic venous disease. P Zamboni, P Spath, V Tisato, M Tessari, PD Caneva, E Menegatti, S Occhionorelli, S Gianesini, P Secchriero Jun-2016 Abstract This study of 178 people with chronic venous disease (CVD) found that surgical suppression of the oscillatory component of reflux modulates the inflammatory phenotype suggesting a pivotal role of flow among factors concurring to inflammation in CVD. 11-03-2016
482 The effect of venous anatomy on the morphology of multiple sclerosis lesions: a susceptibility weighted imaging study B Oztoprak, I Oztoprak, OK Yildiz May-2016 Abstract The form and structure of MS lesions are associated with the orientation of central veins. 04-14-2016
493 Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients CB Beggs, C Magnano, P Belov, J Krawiecki, DP Ramasamy, J Hagemeier, R Zivadinov May-2016 Full Content This study of 65 people with RRMS and 74 healthy controls found the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility (CSF) and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) was altered in people with MS. 05-06-2016
496 Investigation of cerebral microbleeds in multiple sclerosis as a potential marker of blood brain barrier dysfunction. P Eisele, A Alonso, M Griebe, K Szabo, MG Hennerici, A Gass May-2016 Abstract In this study of 186 people with MS none showed a cerebral microbleed (CMB) where the immune system was causing a functional change in the blood brain barrier (BBB). 11-03-2016
500 Detection of retinal blood vessel changes in multiple sclerosis with optical coherence tomography B Bhaduri, RM Nolan, RL Shelton, LA Pilutti, RW Motl, HE Moss, JH Pula SA Boppart May-2016 Full Content Optical coherence tomography (OCT) found eyes in people with MS had a lower blood vessel diameter (BVD) and blood vessel number (BVN) than control eyes. The effect was more pronounced with increased disability. Optic neuritis (ON) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) did not account for the findings. 11-03-2016
491 Clinical Applicability of Assessment of Jugular Flow over the Individual Cardiac Cycle Compared with Current Ultrasound Methodology. F Sisini, M Tessari, E Menegatti, ME Vannini, S Gianesini, V Tavoni, G Gadda, M Gambaccsini, A Taibi, P Zamboni Apr-2016 Abstract The authors developed and tested a new ultrasound method to assess jugular vein flow over the cardiac cycle. The new method is not operator dependent. 04-29-2016
498 Chronic cerebrovascular vein insufficiency: how and when jugular vein PTA can influence multiple sclerosis symptoms PM Bavera Apr-2016 Abstract People with MS (366) were treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the internal jugular veins. People with RRMS (264) were the most important group with significant results in all considered symptoms. Symptom results in 62 people with SPMS and 40 people with PPMS were important but had lower significance. 11-03-2016
499 Diagnosis of CCSVI in Meniere Syndrome. A Bruno, G Quarto, L Califano, D Mastrangelo, M DeVizia, F Salafia, B Bernardo Apr-2016 Abstract CCSVI diagnosis was positive in 90% (128 of 140) people with Meniere's Disease. 11-03-2016
488 Extracranial Venous abnormalities: A true pathological finding in patients with multiple sclerosis or an anatomical variant? C Torres, M Hogan, S Patro, S Chakraborty, T Nguven, R. Thornhill, M Freedman, M Bussiere, H Dabirzadeh, BA Schwartz, S Belanger, L Legault-Kingstone, M Schweitzer, C Lum Mar-2016 Abstract This study of 100 people found it was common to have stenoses and asymmetry of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) in people without MS. 04-14-2016
489 Variability in the Cross-Sectional Area and Narrowing of the Internal Jugular Vein in Patients Without Multiple Sclerosis. K Buch, R Groller, RN Nadgir, A Fujita, MM Qureshi, O Sakai Mar-2016 Abstract This study of the general population identified narrowing in 133 of 363 people (36.6%) at all levels of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Narrowing above 50% occurred primarily at the C4 level (upper cervical and skull base). 04-13-2016
492 Social Media Representation of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis S Ghahari, SJ Forwell Mar-2016 Full Content You Tube videos about CCSVI treatment posted by 621 people with MS and 238 health care professionals (HCP) were analyzed. Eighty-six percent of people with MS reported improvement in at least one symptom. Most HCPs recommended the procedure but called for continued research. 04-29-2016
467 Impaired retinal microcirculation in multiple sclerosis. H Jiang, S Delgado, J Tan, C Liu, KW Rammahan, DC DeBBuc, BL Lam, WJ Feuer, J Wang Feb-2016 Abstract This study of 17 people with RRMS and 17 matched healthy controls found impaired retinal microcirculation of the venules and arterioles of people with RRMS. This indicates microvascular dysfunction in MS. 04-12-2016
468 Why Current Doppler Ultrasound Methodology Is Inaccurate in Assessing Cerebral Venous Return: The Alternative of the Ultrasonic Jugular Venous Pulse P Zamboni Feb-2016 Full Content The author explains why it may be preferable to reliably assess the ultrasonic jugular venous pulse (US JVP) as a screening and prevention tool for neurocognitive disorders. 04-12-2016
469 CRT-300.04 Does An Endovascular Procedure Improve the Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis M Zorc, M Denistic, Z Milosevic, RZ Pleskovic, OV Porenta, A Pleskovic Feb-2016 Abstract This study of 94 people with MS (22 with RRMS, 44 with SPMS, 26 with PPMS) found only 2% did not have vascular abnormalities. Endovascular procedures reduced bladder dysfunction, improved fatigue and contributed to improved disability and quality of life. 04-12-2016
472 Neurovascular and immuno-imaging: from Mechanisms to Therapies. Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium. K Akassoglou, D Agalliu, CJ Chang, D Davalos, J Grutzendler, EM Hillman, BS Khakh, D Kleinfeld, DB McGavern, SJ Nelson, BV Zlokovic Feb-2016 Full Content These proceedings highlight how advances in imaging technology have changed the understanding of communication between the brain, immune, and vascular systems. This can help explain the coupling of neuronal activity to blood supply in the brain. 04-12-2016
475 Medical Tourism for CCSVI Procedures in People with Multiple Sclerosis: An Observational Study LM Metz, J Greenfield, RA Marrie, N Jette, G Blevins, LW Svenson, K Alikhani, W Wall, R Dhaliwal, O Suchoversky Feb-2016 Abstract Online questionnaires found the proportion of people reporting CCSVI procedures declined over time. CCSVI procedures were associated with longer disease duration, SPMS and greater disability status. 04-13-2016
483 Age-related brain atrophy may be mitigated by internal jugular vein enlargement in male individuals without neurologic disease P Belov, C Magnano, J Krawiecki, J Hagemeier, N Bergsland, C Beggs, R Zivadinov Feb-2016 Abstract This study of 193 healthy individuals found sex differences in the relationship between brain volume and internal jugular vein cross-sectional areas. 04-14-2016
487 Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing MM Lagna, L Pelizzari, E Scaccianoce, O Dipasquale, C Ricci, F Baglio, P Cecconi, G Baselli Feb-2016 Full Content Different internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional areas (CSA) have been reported. This article introduces a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and degree of circularity of IJVs along their whole length. 04-14-2016
507 Hypercapnia and hypoxaemia due to impaired venous blood draining and significant improvement after endovascular treatment in patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency I Petrov, L Grozdinski, S Tsonev, M Iloska, I Tasheva Jan-2016 Full Content This study of 178 people with MS and CCSVI and 50 controls suggests that people with MS present with abnormal levels of carbon dioxide and low levels of oxygen in the brain and spinal cord that are at least partially caused by CCSVI. This can be improved with endovascular procedures. 11-03-2016
484 Imaging central veins in brain lesions with 3-T T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging differentiates multiple sclerosis from micronangiopathic brain lesions N Mistry, R Abdel-Fahim, A Samaraweera, O Mongin, E Tallantyre, C Tench, T Jaspan, P Morris, PS Morgan, N Evangelous Dec-2015 Abstract In this study of 40 people 3-T T2* weighted brain MRI distinguished perivenous MS lesions from small vessel disease lesions. 04-14-2016
485 The Oscillating Component of the Internal Jugular Vein Flow: The Overlooked Element of Cerebral Circulation F Sisini, E Toro, M Gambaccini, P Zamboni Dec-2015 Full Content This technical paper highlights the back and forth movement of the IJV (internal jugular vein) and its potential relevance in understanding the relationship between brain drainage and some neurological disorders. 04-14-2016
486 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency A Rasman Dec-2015 Full Content This letter to the editor identifies why there may be such widespread discrepancies in studies attempting to identify and assess CCSVI. Reproducible and objective CCSVI assessment is warranted. 04-14-2016
474 The Pathology of the Internal Jugular Vein Wall in Multiple Sclerosis M Pedriali, P Zamboni Nov-2015 Full Content The authors discuss the pathology of internal jugular veins (IJV) and note that in people with MS the IJV shows significant changes in all venous layers as well as in the valve. 04-12-2016
471 May symptoms of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency be improved by venous angioplasty? An independent 4-year follow up on 366 cases PM Bavera Oct-2015 Full Content Significant positive results 4 years after vein angioplasty in 366 people with CCSVI (264 RRMS, 62 SPMS, 40 PPMS) were found in people with RRMS. Venous angioplasty appears to be safe. Venous angioplasty should be performed sooner rather than later. 04-12-2016
476 C1-C2 X-ray assessment of misalignment parameters in patients with Chronic Cerebra-spinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis versus patients with other pathologies. S Mandolesi, G Marceca, A d'Alessandro, A Desogus, MM Ciccone, A Zito, E Manconi, T Niglio, D Mandolesi, A d'Alessandro, F Fedele Jul-2015 Abstract Data analysis of C1-C2 X-Ray parameters of 386 people with CCSVI and MS and 156 controls found significant severe anterior intrusion and right laterally misalignment in people with MS was two to three times more frequent than in controls. 04-13-2016
477 New acoustic wave therapy improves quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. A d'Alessandro, T Niglio, A d'Alessandro, D Mandolesi Jul-2015 Abstract A patient with MS and CCSVI treated with acoustic waves showed marked improvement with a follow-up of two years. 04-13-2016
479 Scientific Versus Experiential Evidence: Discourse Analysis of the Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Debate in a Multiple Sclerosis Forum J Koschak, L Weibezahl, T Friede, W. Himmel, P Makendonski, J Grabowski Jul-2015 Full Content Discourse analysis of an online forum of the German MS Society of 117 CCSVI threads and 1907 posts detected evidence in lay discourse is different from evidence in expert discourse. 04-13-2016
455 The discovery of the brain lymphatic system P Zamboni Jun-2015 Full Content This editorial notes that the discovery of a brain lymphatic system will require that the autoimmune etiology of several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, including MS, will need to be reconsidered. 06-27-2015
456 Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels. A Louveau, I Smirnov, TJ Keyes, JD Eccles, SJ Rouhani, JD Peske, NC Derecki, D Castle, JW Mandell, KS Lee, TH Harris, J Kipnis Jun-2015 Abstract The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology . 06-27-2015
457 A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules A Spelund, S Antila, ST Proulx, TV Karlsen, S Karaman, M Detmar, H Wiig, K Alitalo Jun-2015 Abstract This study indicates that the mechanism of CSF flow into the direct cervical lymph nodes is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. The results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. 06-27-2015
458 An anatomy-based lumped parameter model of cerebrospinal venous circulation: can an extracranial anatomical change impact intracranial hemodynamics? S Marcotti, L Marchetti, P Cecconi, E Votta, GB Fiore, A Barberio, S Viotti, A Redaelli, MM Lagana Jun-2015 Full Content The authors present a hypothesis for modeling venous drainage in the brain and spinal column and simulating intracranial flow changes due to extracranial stenoses. 06-27-2015
459 Cerebral hypoperfusion: a new pathophysiologic concept in multiple sclerosis? M D'haeseleer, S Hostenbach, I Peeters, SE Sankari, G Nagels, J De Keyser, MB D'hooghe Jun-2015 Abstract There is evidence that reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) is MS is associated with chronic hypoxia, focal lesion formation, axonal degeneration, cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Restoring CBF may be a new therapeutic target in MS. 06-27-2015
460 Impact of CCSVI on cerebral haemodynamics: a mathematical study using MRI angiographic and flow data. LO Muller, EF Toro, EM Haacke, D Utrianen Jun-2015 Abstract This study suggests extra-cranial venous strictures can lead to pressure increases in intra-cranial veins of up to 1.3 mmHG. The long term clinical implications of the predicted pressure changes are unclear. 06-27-2015
473 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Is It Venosclerosis? Z Sternberg Jun-2015 Full Content The author presents information suggesting CCSVI may be venosclerosis. 04-12-2016
490 An anatomy-based lumped parameter model of cerebrospinal venous circulation: can an extracranial anatomic change impact intracranial hemodrynamics? S Marcotti, L Marchetti, P Cecconi, E Votta, GB Fiore, A Barberio, S Viotti, A Redaelli, MM Lagana Jun-2015 Full Content This paper provides a model of the venous drainage in the brain and spinal column areas and simulates the intracranial flow changes due to extracranial stenosis. 04-14-2016
466 Inflammation, Iron, Energy Failure, and Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis L Haider May-2015 Full Content This review highlights the possible sources of oxidative stress in people with MS. 06-27-2015
478 Preliminary results after upper cervical chiropractic care in patients with chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis S Mandolesi, G Marceca, J Moser, T Niglio, A d'Alessandro, MM Ciccone, A Zito, D Mandolesi, A d'Alessandro, F Fedele May-2015 Abstract Preliminary results of adjustments of C1-C2 on 77 people with MS and CCSVI suggest this may be the main non-invasive treatment of mechanical CCSVI in people with MS. 04-13-2016
463 Iron deposition in the gray matter in patients with relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study using three dimensional (3D)-enhanced T2*-weighted angiography (ESWAN) S Du, SK Sah, C Zeng, J Wang, Y Liu, H Xiong, Y Li Apr-2015 Abstract This study of 30 people with RRMS and 30 healthy controls found iron concentration increased in the gray matter of people with MS during a two year period. There was also a significant and substantial correlation of iron with disease severity. 06-27-2015
464 Predictors of chronic cerebrospinal venous procedure use among older people with multiple sclerosis: a national case-control study M Ploughman, OJ Manning, S Beaulieu, C Harris, SH Hogan, N Mayo, JD Fisk, P O'Connor, S Morrow, LM Metz, et al Apr-2015 Full Content Analysis of data on people with MS over 20 years and over 55 years of age found 12.8% (95/743) had the “liberation” procedure. 06-27-2015
465 Brain Hyperchogenicities are not Associated with Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Neurosonology Study. C Krogias, R Gold, A Chan, N Triantafyllou, K Voumvourakis, G Tsvigoulis Apr-2015 Abstract This study of 32 people with MS did not support the “venous hypothesis” resulting in iron accumulation. 06-27-2015
461 Neuroendocrine Responses to Transvascular Autonomic Modulation: A Modified Balloon Angioplasty in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. M Arata, Z Stemberg Mar-2015 Abstract Unexpected reductions in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol following balloon angioplasty need further investigation. 06-27-2015
462 Reflections on the Canadian study by Traboulsee et al. Prevalence of extracranial venous narrowing on catheter venography in people with multiple sclerosis, their siblings, and unrelated healthy controls: a blinded, case control study S Mandolesi, A d'Allessandro, T Niglio, M Rosse Mar-2015 Full Content The authors identify and list numerous concerns and questions about the Canadian study by Traboulsee et al. 06-27-2015
452 Cerebral Circulation Time is Prolonged and Not Correlated with EDSS in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Study Using Digital Subtracted Angiography L Monti, D, Donati, E Menci, S Cioni, M Bellini, I Grazzini, S Leonini, P Galluzzi, S Severi, L Burroni, A Casasco, L Morbidelli, E Santarnecchi, P Piu Feb-2015 Full Content This study of 80 people with MS (45 RRMS, 35 SP or PPMS) and 44 controls measuring cerebral circulation time (CCT) found blood flow in the brains of people with MS was significantly slower than in controls. Further, the study findings suggest the presence of microvascular dysfunction is not dependent on clinical and MRI findings. 03-05-2015
453 Italian Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency National Epidemiological Observatory methodology and preliminary data S Mandolesi, A d'Alessandro, MM Ciccone, A Zito, T Niglio, E Manconi, D Mandolesi, A d'Alessandro, A Bruno, F Fedele Feb-2015 Full Content The CCSVI National Epidemiological Observatory (NEO) and Mem-net software may be useful medical and research tools for recording, storing, analyzing and studying vascular data. Preliminary data utilizing this methodology identified CCSVI in 84.9% (937 people) out of a total of 1109 people with MS. 03-05-2015
454 An Ultrasonic Technique to Assess the Jugular Venous Pulse: A Proof of Concept F Sisini, M Tessari, G Gadda, G Di Domenico, A Taibi, E Menegatti, M Gambaccini, P Zamboni Feb-2015 Abstract This study found a diagram reflecting the jugular venous pulse (JVP) can be obtained by analyzing a B-mode sonogram of the internal jugular vein (IJV). This may result in new methodology to assess IJV functionality. 03-05-2015
470 CRT-301. Gait Speed and Quality of Life After Vein's Endovascular Procedures in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis M Zorc, M Denislic, J Ravnik, Z Milosevic, JY Al-Hashel, RZ Pleskovic, D Ravnik Feb-2015 Abstract Two years after angioplasty this study of 64 people with MS noted improvement in the clinical disability of people with RRMS. Gait speed significantly improved in 70% of people with MS, fatigue decreased and bladder function improved. 04-12-2016
449 Prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a blinded sonographic evaluation L Tromba, S Blasi, A Vestri, D Kiltzanidi, F Tartaglia, A Redler Jan-2015 Abstract In a blinded study the Zamboni ultrasound protocol combined with M-mode ultrasound examination identified CCSVI in 59.8% of 112 people with MS and no CCSVI in 67 healthy subjects. CCSVI is strongly associated with MS and is not found in healthy controls. 02-12-2015
450 Intracranial Relationship Between Arterioles and Venules Size P De Bonis, P Zamboni Jan-2015 Full Content This is a letter to the editor about reduced cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in people with MS. The possible role of increased resistance in extracranial veins warrants further study. 02-12-2015
451 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: the end of “The Big Idea” ? E Stolz Jan-2015 Full Content This is an editorial comment on the status of CCSVI research. 02-12-2015
434 How to objectively assess jugular primary venous obstruction P Zamboni Dec-2014 Full Content The author explains why the study by Traboulsee, et al failed to find differences in CCSVI prevalence between people with MS and healthy controls. 12-27-2014
435 Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics CB Beggs Dec-2014 Full Content This review highlights the potential impact of restricted venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system. 12-27-2014
436 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in Meniere's disease: diagnosis and treatment A Bruno, L Califano, D Mastrangelo, M De Vizia, B Bernardo, F Salafia Dec-2014 Full Content This study of 50 people with Meniere's disease (MD) found 45 (90%) had a diagnosis of CCSVI. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) improved symptoms and vestibular function in the majority of people with MD and CCSVI. 12-27-2014
437 Internal jugular vein narrowing and body mass index in healthy individuals and multiple sclerosis patients C Magnano, P Belov, J Krawiecki, J Hagemeier, R Zivadinov Dec-2014 Full Content This study of 194 people with MS and 194 healthy individuals (HI) found increased body mass index (BMI) was associated with internal jugular vein (IJV) widening at lower cervical levels in both people with MS and HI. BMI can obscure interpretation of IJV cross-sectional areas. 12-27-2014
438 Storms, hanged pirates, anemia, exsanguination: the contributions of Morro, Kellie and Abercrombie in understanding intracranial blood circulation P De Bonis, C Anile Dec-2014 Full Content The authors discuss several historical doctrines regarding intracranial blood circulation. 12-27-2014
439 Assessment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis by a Morphological-Hemodynamic Map software S Mandolesi, T Niglio, A d'Alessandro, D Mandolesi, L Agati, MM Ciccone, AP Zito, A Orsini, E Manconi, F Fedele Dec-2014 Abstract MEM-net software was utilized to analyze Echo-Color-Doppler (ECD) data from 552 people with MS. The software diagnosed 83% positive for CCSVI. CCSVI was classified into three different types. 12-28-2014
440 Comparison of brain vessel imaging from transtemporal and transcondylar approaches using contrast-enhanced transcranial color-coded duplex sonography and Virtual Navigator D Skoloudik, M Kuliha, M Roubec, J Havelka, K Langova, R Herzig Dec-2014 Full Content In a comparison of approaches transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) was found to have serious limitations in the standard detection of intracranial venous reflux. 12-28-2014
441 Review of catheter venography protocols in the evaluation of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency H Ferrall Nov-2014 Full Content Technical details of catheter venography including venous access site selection, catheter selection, position, contrast injection techniques and interpretation of venographic findings are reviewed. 12-28-2014
442 Endothelin-1 concentrations in the internal jugular and azygous veins in multiple sclerosis patients: the results of a pilot study M Simka, T Ludyga, P Janas, M Kazibudzki, P Latacz Nov-2014 Full Content This pilot study of 9 people with MS and 5 healthy controls suggests it is unlikely that endothelin-1 is responsible for the symptoms of MS. 12-28-2014
443 A new hemodynamic model for the study of cerebral venous outflow G Gadda, A Taibi, F Sisini, M Gambaccini, P Zamboni, M Ursino Nov-2014 Abstract This mathematical model of cerebral venous outflow reproduces average physiological behavior of the jugular, vertebral and cerebral ducts in terms of pressure and flows. 12-28-2014
444 Relationship between iron accumulation and white matter injury in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study. E Raz, B Branson, JH Jensen, M Bester, JS Babb, J Herbert, RI Grossman, M Inglese Nov-2014 Abstract This study of 31 people with MS found quantitative iron evaluation of white matter and gray matter may improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of MS and may serve as a surrogate marker of disease progression. 12-28-2014
448 "Liberation treatment" for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: the truth will set you free G Tsivgoulis, S Faissner, K Voumvourakis, AH Katsanos, N Triantafyllou, N Grigoriadis, R Gold, C Krogias Nov-2014 Full Content The authors conclude CCSVI is a poorly reproducible and clinically irrelevant sonographic construct with no proven efficacy. Treatment should not be offered even in controlled clinical trials. 12-28-2014
431 Jugular Venous Flow Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Compared to Normal Controls. SK Sethi, DT Utriainen, AM Daugherty, W Feng, JJ Hewitt, N Raz, EM Haacke Oct-2014 Abstract MRI was used to assess the anatomy and function of major veins in the neck of 138 people with MS and 67 healthy controls (HCs). People with MS had lower normalized IJV blood flow than HCs. 10-19-2014
432 Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchroton-based XRF imaging L Pascolo, A Gianoncelli, C Rizzardi, V Tisato, M Salome, C Calligaro, F Salvi, D Paterson, P Zamboni Oct-2014 Full Content Truncular venous malformations (TVMs) of the IJVs were analyzed in 2 people with TVMS and 2 controls. Higher calcium deposits were identified in people with a TVM. 10-19-2014
445 In vitro study of the direct effect of extracellular hemoglobin on myelin components. VV Bamm, DK Lanthier, EL Stephenson, GS Smith, G Harauz Oct-2014 Abstract This work supports further research into the vascular pathology in MS to gain insight into the origin and role of iron deposits in disease pathology. 12-28-2014
424 Increased size of third ventricle in patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency A d'Alessandro, S Mandolesi, T Niglio, A Orsini, P Di Cello, F Pelle, F Mora, D Mandolesi, F Fedele Sep-2014 Full Content The size of the third ventricle was measured in 33 people with MS and CCSVI and 33 healthy controls. Twenty nine people with MS and CCSVI (88%) had an increase in third ventricle diameter. This could represent a criterion of positivity of neurological disease in people with CCSVI. 09-20-2014
425 Navigating the "liberation procedure": a qualitative study of motivating and hesitating factors among people with multiple sclerosis M Ploughman, C Harris, SH Hogan, C Murray, M Murdoch, MW Austin, M Stefanelli Sep-2014 Full Content Semistructured interviews of 7 people who underwent angioplasty for CCSVI and of 8 who did not identified factors impacting their respective decisions. 09-20-2014
430 Recommendations for Multimodal Noninvasive and Invasive Screening for Detection of Extracranial Venous Abnormalities of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: A Position Statement of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease R Zivadinov, S Bastianello, MD Dake, H Ferral, EM Haacke, ZJ Haskal, D Hubbard, N Liasis, K Mandato, S Sclafani, AH Siddiqui, M Simka, P Zamboni Sep-2014 Full Content This International Society for Neurovascular Disease (ISNVD) position paper presents the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and intravascular ultrasound (US) protocols and describes refined Color Doppler US and catheter venography (CV) protocols. 10-19-2014
433 "I knew what was going to happen if I did nothing and so I was going to do something"; Faith, hope and trust in the decisions of Canadians with multiple sclerosis to seek unproven interventions abroad J Snyder, K Adams, VA Crooks, D Whitehurst, J Vallee Sep-2014 Full Content An analysis of interviews with 15 Canadians who sought CCSVI treatment abroad found loss of faith in the Canadian health system and especially neurologists were underlying factors in their decisions to seek treatment. 10-19-2014
427 Impaired Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Multiple Sclerosis. O Marshall, H Lu, JC Brisset, F Xu, P Liu, J Herbert, RI Grossman, Y Ge Aug-2014 Abstract This study of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in 19 healthy controls (HCs) and 19 people with MS found a significant decrease of average global gray matter CVR in people with MS compared to HCs. There was also a significant positive correlation between global CVR and gray matter atrophy. Decreased CVR may be the underlying cause of neurodegeneration in MS. 09-20-2014
428 Collision or convergence?: beliefs and politics in neuroscience discovery, ethics, and intervention. B Paylor, H Longstaff, F Rossi, J Illes Aug-2014 Abstract The authors identify CCSVI as one of five cases where beliefs and politics prevailed over evidence and ethics. 09-20-2014
429 Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Dynamics in Multiple Sclerosis Patients through Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging. MM Lagana, A Chaudhary, D Balagurunathan, D Utriainen, P Kokeny, W Feng, P Cecconi, D Hubbard, M Haacke Aug-2014 Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics at the cervical level in association with internal jugular vein (IJV) flows was examined in 92 people with MS. The results suggest alterations in IJV morphology affect both IJV flow and CSF flow timing but not CSF flow amplitude. 10-19-2014
426 Using the MEM-net program to report on mapping the Echo Color Doppler assessment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency S Mandolesi, A d'Alessandro, E Manconi, T Niglio, A Orsini, D Mandolesi Jul-2014 Full Content An internet based program, hemodynamic morphological map (MEM-NeT), reduces Echo Color Doppler (ECD) reporting time and makes a blind control for scientific research. 09-20-2014
413 Preliminary report on a new concept stent prototype designed for venous implant. M Lugli, O Maleti Jun-2014 Abstract The authors designed a stent to match characteristics required by vein implants rather than arteries. The stents were tested in the internal jugular vein of sheep and were flexible and easily and safely placed. 06-16-2014
414 Multiple sclerosis deep grey matter: the relation between demyelination, neurodegeneration, inflammation and iron L Haider, C Simeonidou, G Steinberger, S Hametner, N Grigoriadis, G Deretzi, GG Kovacs, A Kutzelnigg, H Lassmann, JM Frischer Jun-2014 Full Content Systematic studies of the white matter and cortex of 25 MS autopsy patients and 12 controls found focal lesions and diffuse neurodegeneration in deep grey matter appeared to contribute to neurological disability in people with MS. 06-16-2014
415 Transvascular Autonomic Modulation: A Modified Balloon Angioplasty Technique for the Treatment of Autonomic Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis Patients M Arata, Z Sternberg Jun-2014 Full Content Transvascular autonomic modulation (TVAM) was performed on 21 people with MS who also had symptoms of cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The combination of balloon angioplasty of normal veins coupled with external compression can improve indicators of ANS dysfunction. 06-16-2014
416 Validity of the diagnostic criteria for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and association with multiple sclerosis F Costello, J Modi, D Lautner, D Bhayan, JN Scott, WJ Davenport, J Trufyn, R Frayne, VA Gura, M Goyal, J Mah, MD Hill Jun-2014 Full Content In this ultrasound and MRV study of 120 people with MS and 60 healthy controls no differences in the proportion of venous outflow abnormalities were detected between people with MS and healthy controls. Methodological concerns challenge the validity of CCSVI diagnostic criteria. 06-16-2014
417 Is there any relation between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis? --a critical review W Jedynak, A Cieszanowski Jun-2014 Full Content This review of CCSVI concludes that given currently available information, routine treatment of CCSVI is not advisable. 06-16-2014
418 Ultrastructure of internal jugular vein defective valves P Zamboni, V Tisato, Z Menegatti, F Mascoli, S Gianesini, F Salvi, P Secchiero Jun-2014 Full Content Electron microscopy of intraluminal defects in the internal jugular veins of 7 people with MS and CCSVI found vein walls showed significant derangement of the endothelial layer. Endothelial cells were absent in defective cusps. These findings were not present in 3 controls. 07-02-2014
419 Cognitive functioning and subjective quality of life in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: a preliminary report C De Pasquale, ML Pistorio, M Veroux, A Giaquinta, P Veroux, M Fornaro Jun-2014 Full Content Preliminary findings of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) suggest a beneficial effect of PTA in those severe cases of MS followed for 24 months after treatment. The study has limitations that are noted. 07-02-2014
420 Iron and Volume in the Deep Gray Matter: Association with Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis. CM Modica, R Zivadinov, MG Dwyer, N Bergsland, AR Weeks, RH Benedict Jun-2014 Abstract The relationship between iron and cognition in several deep gray matter structures was examined in 85 people with MS and 27 healthy volunteers. The findings suggest iron accumulation plays a significant, if minor, role in MS cognitive decline. 07-02-2014
422 Prospective randomized trial of venous angioplasty in MS (PREMiSE). AH Siddiqui, R Zivadinov, RH Benedict, Y Karmon, J Yu, ML Hartney, KL Marr, V Valnarov, CL Kennedy, M Ramanathan, et al, B Weinstock-Guttman Jun-2014 Abstract This was a blinded, sham controlled randomized trial of 30 people with MS and CCSVI to assess the safety and efficacy of venous angioplasty. The procedure was reasonably safe. However it failed to provide any sustained improvement in venous outflow as measured through duplex or clinical and MRI outcomes. 07-02-2014
423 Venous angioplasty for "CCSVI" in multiple sclerosis: Ending a therapeutic misadventure. DN Bourdette, JA Cohen Jun-2014 Title Only No abstract available. 07-02-2014
446 Cerebral Venous Outflow in Multiple Sclerosis Patients versus Fatigue and/or Depression MHJ Hagens, ELJ Hoogervorst, STFN Frequin, SC Tramp Jun-2014 Full Content This study of 20 people with MS and controls found no significantly impaired venous outflow differences in people with MS and controls. There was no correlation between anxiety and depression and impaired venous outflow. 12-28-2014
410 Endovascular treatment of chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis modifies circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction: a prospective study. M Napolitano, A Bruno, D Mastrangelo, M De Vizia, B Bernardo, B Rosa, D De Lucia May-2014 Abstract This study of 110 people with MS and CCSVI followed for 18 months after treatment for CCSVI found markers of endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation were modified. 06-03-2014
421 Iron and Multiple Sclerosis JM Stankiewicz, M Neema, A Ceccarelli May-2014 Full Content This review summarizes the role of iron in the pathophysiology of MS. 07-02-2014
405 Bilateral Surgical Reconstruction for Internal Jugular Veins Disease in Patients With Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and associated Multiple Sclerosis. S Spagnolo, F Scalise, L Barbato, MA Grasso, UF Tesler Apr-2014 Abstract Surgical reconstruction of internal jugular veins (IJV) in 3 people with MS and CCSVI improved symptoms. Benefits were maintained at one year. 04-10-2014
406 Human Internal Jugular Valve M-mode Ultrasound Characterization E Menegatti, M Tessari, S Gianesini, ME Vannini, F Sisini, P Zamboni Apr-2014 Full Content Evaluation of the opening and closing of internal jugular valves (IJVs) by B and M-mode ultrasound in 83 healthy volunteers found they were always mobile. M-mode ultrasound should be added to cerebral venous return research protocols. 05-01-2014
408 Cerebrospinal fluid transferrin levels are reduced in patients with early multiple sclerosis. M Khalil, B Riedlbauer, C Langkammer, C Enzinger, S Ropele, T Stojakovic, H Scharnagl, et al Apr-2014 Abstract This analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in 60 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 14 people with early MS, and 68 controls found evidence that altered iron homeostasis within the brain occurs very early in the disease process. 05-01-2014
409 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: The Hydrostatic-Immune Paradigm and the Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Tool NG Tsamopoulos, VE Kalodimou, S Vlachos Apr-2014 Full Content The authors propose a mechanism by which CCSVI could theoretically lead to pathological findings seen in MS. 06-03-2014
412 Determinants of iron accumulation in deep grey matter of multiple sclerosis patients. S Ropele, ID Kilsdonk, MP Wattjes, C Langkammer, WL de Graaf, JL Frederiksen, HB Larsson, et al Apr-2014 Abstract Iron accumulation in deep grey matter (GM) of people with MS is most strongly associated with severity and duration of disease. 06-03-2014
396 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: current perspectives M Simka Mar-2014 Full Content This review summarizes research to date on CCSVI and identifies factors contributing to conflicting evidence about the nature and prevalence of CCSVI in people with MS. Future research should take a multimodal approach. 03-09-2014
398 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in Meniere disease FD Berardino, DC Alpini, PM Bavera, P Cecconi, M Farabola, V Mattei, U Ambrosetti, A Cesarani Mar-2014 Abstract Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and venous echo-color Doppler (ECD) of 52 volunteers identified cerebrospinal drainage abnormalities in 83% of people with Meniere disease (MD) and 57% without MD. CCSVI might predispose people to MD. 03-09-2014
399 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: a comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies G Tsivgoulis, TN Sergentanis, A Chan, K Voumarkis, N Triantafyllou, T Psaltopoulou, R Gold, C Krogias Mar-2014 Full Content Analysis of 19 studies including 1950 people with MS and 899 healthy controls showed that CCSVI was associated with MS. When studies by researchers who were interested in CCSVI were omitted from analysis no association between MS and CCSVI was found. 03-09-2014
401 A Sonographic Quantitative Cutoff Value of Cerebral Venous Outflow in Neurologic Diseases: A Blinded Study of 115 Subjects. L Monti, E Menci, P Piu, S Leonini, U Arrigucci, M Bellini, A Zandonella, P Galluzzi, A Casascco Mar-2014 Abstract This blinded study of 54 people with MS, 32 healthy controls and 30 people with other neurological diseases (OND) found alterations of cerebral venous blood outflow discriminated MS from OND and MS from healthy controls. A difference in the value of supine and sitting positions of cerebral blood venous outflow was statistically associated with MS. 03-18-2014
402 Internal Jugular Vein Blood Flow in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Matched Controls M Mancini, R Lanzillo, R Liuzzi, O Di Donato, M Ragucci, S Monti, E Salvatore, VB Morra, M Salvatore Mar-2014 Full Content Internal jugular vein (IJV) drainage patterns were assessed in 58 people with MS (32 RRMS, 20 SPMS, 6 PPMS) and 13 healthy controls. A significant correlation was found between IJV drainage (wash out rate) and level of disability. The results suggest MS is associated with changes in the dynamics of the IJVs. 03-29-2014
403 Patterns of venous insufficiency in the dural sinuses and extracranial draining veins and the relationship with white matter hyperintensities for patients with Parkinson's disease M Liu, H Xu, Y Wang, Y Zhong, S Xia, D Utriainen, T Wang, EM Haacke Mar-2014 Abstract Assessment of 23 people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and 23 age matched controls found venous abnormalities in 57% of people with IPD and 30% of controls. Venous flow abnormalities correlated with white matter hyperintensities. 03-29-2014
404 Computational haemodynamics in stenotic internal jugular veins. A Caiazzo, G Montecinos, LO Muller, EM Haacke, EF Toro Mar-2014 Abstract This article offers a framework to assess the relevance of IJV stenoses through numerical simulation. 03-29-2014
395 Venous Hemodynamic Insufficiency Serverity Score variation after endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. F Scalise, E Novelli, M Farina, L Barbato, S Spagnolo Feb-2014 Abstract Percutaneous venous angioplasty (PVA) was performed on 45 people with MS and CCSVI. Venous hemodynamic and insufficiency severity scores decreased significantly after PVA. Three months after PVA the EDSS score was significantly lower than baseline. 02-28-2014
397 Hemoglobin as a source of iron overload in multiple sclerosis: does multiple sclerosis share risk factors with vascular disorders? VV Bamm, G Hauruz Feb-2014 Abstract The origin of abnormal iron deposits in the brains of people with MS is unknown. Hemoglobin escaping from blood vessels may be one factor contributing to the iron overload. 03-09-2014
411 Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Malformations Consensus Document of the International Union of Phlebology (IUP): updated 2013 BB Lee, I Baumgartner, P Berlien, G Bianchini, P Burrows, P Gloviczki, Y Huang, J Laredo, DA Loose, J Markovic, et al, P Zamboni Feb-2014 Abstract This consensus document updates changes as of 2013 in the diagnosis and treatment of venous malformations. 06-03-2014
389 Comment on "Internal jugular and vertebral vein volume flow in patients with clinically isolated syndrome or mild multiple sclerosis and healthy controls: results from a prospective sonographer-blinded study" F Sisini, A Taibi, M Gambaccini, P Zamboni Jan-2014 Title Only The authors question the validity of the method used to estimate blood volume flow in a specific study. Thus, the results of the study itself are questionable. 01-22-2014
390 Sources of Information and Behavioral Patterns in Online Health Forums: Qualitative Study F Sudau, T Friede, J Grabowski, J Korschack, P Pakedonski, W Himmel Jan-2014 Full Content This article analyzes information about CCSVI posted online between January 2008 and August 2012 in the largest German online forum on multiple sclerosis. 01-22-2014
392 Comment on "Reproducibility of Cerebrospinal Venous Blood Flow and Vessel Anatomy with the Use of Phase Contrast--Vastly Undersampled Isotropic Projection Reconstruction and Contrast Enhanced MRA" F Sisini, A Taibi, M Gambaccini, E Menegatti, P Zamboni Jan-2014 Title Only No abstract available. 01-22-2014
393 A Swan Song for CCSVI. J Reekers Jan-2014 Title Only No abstract available. 01-22-2014
407 Magnetic Resonance Venography in Detection of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Egyptian Patients with Multiple Sclerosis MS El-Tamawy, AS Saeed, M Farghaly, HA Mohamed Jan-2014 Full Content This magnetic resonance venography (MRV) study of 15 people with MS and 15 healthy controls found CCSVI in 40% of people with MS and 6.7% of healthy controls. CCSVI was not related to clinical characteristics of the disease or MRI load. 05-01-2014
380 Objective duplex ultrasound evaluation of the extracranial circulation in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing venoplasty of internal jugular vein stenoses: A pilot study. P Thibault, W Lewis, S Niblett Dec-2013 Abstract Examinations of 8 people with MS found all had internal jugular vein stensoses. After venoplasty treatment global arterial cerebral blood flow (GACBF) significantly improved. This supports the view that early symptomatic benefits after venoplasty may be the result of increased cerebral perfusion. 12-12-2013
382 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in meniere syndrome: diagnosis and treatment A Bruno, L Califano, D Mastrangelo, M De Vizia, B Bernardo Dec-2013 Abstract CCSVI was found in 24 of 25 people (95%) with Meniere's Syndrome. Percuntaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed with good results in all patients. Symptoms were reduced. 12-12-2013
384 Potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in central nervous system disorders and aging R Zivadinov, CP Chung Dec-2013 Full Content This review examines the anatomy, etiology and pathophysiology associated with venous abnormalities and the clinical correlates to various CNS disorders and aging. 01-01-2014
385 Is there a link between the extracranial venous system and central nervous system pathology? R Zivadinov Dec-2013 Full Content There is limited understanding of the pathophysiology of the extracranial venous system. Basic science and clinical studies utilizing non-invasive and invasive multimodal imaging techniques are needed. 01-01-2014
386 Transcranial brain photoplethysmography to study the venules of cerebral cortex in patients with multiple sclerosis. S Viola, P Viola, L Fiorelli, M Buongarzone, P Litterio Dec-2013 Abstract A safe and non-invasive technique was used to measure cerebral blood volume of the internal jugular veins in 38 people with MS and 20 matched healthy controls. It found a minor increase in cerebral blood volume in people with MS that might be a new marker for the disease. 01-01-2014
387 Observations on the brain vasculature in multiple sclerosis: A historical perspective AD Rae-Grant, C Wong, R Bernatowicz, RJ Fox Dec-2013 Abstract The controversy over venous disease in MS is new, but the perivenous distribution of MS lesions and venous theories about the pathology of MS are as old as the history of MS research. 01-01-2014
388 Hemodynamic evidence linking cognitive deficits in clinically isolated syndrome to regional brain inflammation. EZ Papadaki, PG Simos, T Panou, VC Mastorodemos, TG Maris, AH Karantanas, A Plaitakis Dec-2013 Abstract An evaluation of the hemodynamics of 40 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) found verbal memory in CIS correlated inversely with elevated cerebral blood volume values of brain structures involved in memory. This may be due to inflammation. 01-01-2014
391 MR venography in children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis does not show increased prevalence of extracranial veins anomalies. E Jurkiewicz, K Kotulska, K Nowak, S Chelstowska, M Armata, D Chmielewski, M Bilska Dec-2013 Abstract MR venography of 20 children with MS and 19 age-matched controls found no evidence that children with MS have more extrancranial venous anomalies than healthy children. 01-22-2014
367 Cross-sectional area variations of internal jugular veins during supine head rotation in multiple sclerosis patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a prospective diagnostic controlled study with duplex ultrasound investigation M Farina, E Novelli, R Pagani Nov-2013 Full Content The internal jugular veins (IJVs) of 313 people with MS and CCSVI and 298 healthy controls were examined before and after head rotation while they were lying down. Significant differences between the jugular cross sectional areas (CSA) before and after head rotation were observed only in people with MS with IJVs and wall collapse. There was a strong association between CCSVI scores and complexity of jugular morphological types. Wall miopragia (dysfunction) was mainly observed in people with MS: SPMS, 59.3 %; PPMS, 70.0%; and, RRMS, 48.3%. 11-12-2013
369 Aqueductal cerebral fluid pulsatility in healthy individuals is affected by impaired cerebral venous outflow CB Beggs, C Magnano, SJ Shepherd, K Marr, V Valnarov, D Hojnacki, N Bergsland, P Belov, S Grisafi, MG Dwyer, E Carl, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Nov-2013 Abstract Evaluation of 51 healthy people (32 CCSVI-negative and 19 CCSVI-positive) found that cerebrospinal fluid dynamics (CSF) are altered in CCSVI-positive healthy individuals and accompanied by enlargement of the aqueduct of Sylvius (AoS). Structural changes may be occurring in the brain parenchyma of CCSVI-positive healthy individuals. 11-12-2013
370 Prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a blinded sonographic evaluation. L Tromba, S Blasi, A Vestri, D Kiltzanidi, F Tartaglia, A Redler Nov-2013 Abstract Evaluation of 112 people with MS and 67 healthy people by Duplex and color doppler, transcranial color duplex sonography, and M-Mode study of the valve system and venous abnormalities found CCSVI in 59.8% of people with MS and 0 healthy people. Age, disease duration, sex, type of MS and EDSS did not predict the presence of CCSVI. 11-20-2013
371 A reliability study of colour-Doppler sonography for the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficency shows low inter-rater agreement MA Leone, O Raymkulova, A Lucenti, A Stecco, L Bolamperti, L Coppo, W Liboni, G Rivadossi, G Zaccala, M Maggio, F Melis, C Giaccone, A Carriero, P Lochner Nov-2013 Full Content Inter-rater agreement in evaluating CCSVI criteria was low in this blinded study of 38 people with MS and 55 age-matched controls. Zamboni -trained neurosonographers identified CCSVI more frequently than the non-trained neurosonographers. 11-20-2013
373 Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty Z Sternberg, P Grewal, S Cen, F DeBarge-Igoe, J Yu, M Arata Nov-2013 Full Content Balloon angioplasty intervention corrected blood pressure deviations in people with 50% or more narrowing in one or both internal jugular veins and three or more symptoms of autonomic system dysfunction. 11-20-2013
374 Jugular Venous Reflux and White Matter Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease: A Pilot Study CP Chung, C Beggs, PN Wang, N Bergsland, S Shepherd, CY Cheng, DP Ramasamy, DG Swyer, HH Hu, R Zivadinov Nov-2013 Abstract This pilot study of 12 people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 24 people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 17 elderly age- and gender-matched controls suggests there may be an association between jugular venous reflux (JVR) and cerebral white matter changes (WMC) in people with AD. 11-20-2013
375 The Fluctuating Natural Course of CCSVI in MS Patients and Controls, a Prospective Follow-Up PJ Van den Berg, LH Visser Nov-2013 Full Content An initial extra- and transcranial echo colour Doppler (ECD) examination followed by another ECD examination after a median time of 16 weeks in 52 people with MS and 28 healthy controls found a fluctuating natural course of extracranial venous hemodynamics, making determination of CCSVI by ECD unreliable. 11-20-2013
376 Multiple sclerosis: CCSVI deconstructed and discarded. F Barkhof, MP Wattjes Nov-2013 Title Only No abstract available. 11-20-2013
378 Contrast enhanced MR venography with gadofosveset trisodium: Evaluation of the intracranial and extracranial venous system. LA Kramer, AM Cohen, KM Hasan, JH Heimbigner, AD Barreto, SA Brod, PA Naravana, JS Wolinsky Nov-2013 Abstract Contrast enhanced MR venography (CEMRV) using gadofosveset trisodium is accurate in the evaluation of the venous system. 11-29-2013
379 Age-Related Vascular Differences Among Patients Suffering from Multiple Sclerosis. F Ciciarello, S Mandolesi, AI Galeandro, A Marceca, M Rossi, F Fedele, M Gesualdo, F Cortese, A Zito, F Frederico, P Livrea, M Trojano, P Scicchitano, MM Ciccone Nov-2013 Full Content Echo Color Doppler of 552 people with MS identified 83% (458) with alterations in the form and functional structures of cerebral veins. People 30 or younger had much more cerebral vein stenosis and blocked flow in the internal jugular veins and vertebral veins than people older than 30. People over 30 had longer disease duration and higher EDSS. Duration of disease may explain this finding. 11-29-2013
394 Reproducibility of Cerebrospinal Venous Blood Flow and Vessel Anatomy with the Use of Phase Contrast--Vastly Undersampled Isotropic Projection Reconstruction and Contrast-Enhanced MRA EM Schrauben, KM Johnson, J Huston, AM del Rio, SB Reeder, A Field, O Wieben Nov-2013 Full Content This study examines flow variability in cerebrospinal veins using 4D MR flow and contrast-enhanced MRA in 10 healthy people. 01-22-2014
447 MR venography in patients with multiple sclerosis and correlation with clinical and MRI parameters. E Raz, S Pontecorvo, V Barra, BC Marincola, M Morreale, E Tinelli, L Saba, PL Di Paolo, A Aceti, C Catalano, A Francia, F Caramia Nov-2013 Abstract This 3T MRV evaluation of 29 people with MS found the presence/severity of jugular vein stenosis was not related to MR-visible tissue damage. No abnormal flow was found in stenosed veins. 12-28-2014
360 Prevalence of extracranial venous narrowing on catheter venography in people with multiple sclerosis, their siblings, and healthy controls: a blinded, case-control study. AL Traboulsee, KB Know, L Machan, Y Zhao, I Yee, A Rauscher, D Klass, P Szkup, R Otani, D Kopriva, S Lala, DK Li, D Sadovnick Oct-2013 Abstract Catheter venography performed on 79 people with MS, 55 siblings and 43 unrelated controls found CCSVI occurs rarely in people with MS and in healthy people. Extracranial venous narrowing of more than 50% occurs frequently in people with MS, siblings and healthy controls. The significance of venous narrowing on MS symptoms is unknown. 10-18-2013
361 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: the final curtain. F Paul, MP Wattjes Oct-2013 Title Only No abstract available. 10-18-2013
363 Multimodal noninvasive and invasive imaging of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI: results of the PREMiSe pilot study R Zivadinov, Y Karmon, K Dolic, J Hagemeier, K Marr, V Valnarov, CL Kennedy, D Hojnacki, EM Carl, LN Hopkins, EI Levy, B Weinstock-Guttman, AH Siddiqui Oct-2013 Full Content Internal jugular veins (IJVs) and azygous/vertebral veins (VV) were examined in 20 people with MS using 2 noninvasive techniques: doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and 2 invasive techniques: catheter venography (CV) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Noninvasive screening was inadequate to depict the total azygous vein/VVs anomalies. The two invasive techniques confirmed the existence of severe extracranial venous anomalies that significantly impaired normal blood outflow from the brain. 10-24-2013
364 Hydration status substantially affects chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency assessments CI Diaconu, RJ Fox, A Grattan, A Rae-grant, M Lu, HL Gornick, ESH Kim Oct-2013 Abstract Hydration status during Doppler ultrasound evaluations influences assessment of CCSVI criteria. 10-24-2013
365 Group specific vein-atlasing: An application for analyzing the venous system under normal and multiple sclerosis conditions. G Grabner, A Dal-Bianco, S Hametner, H Lassmann, S Tratttnig Oct-2013 Abstract Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) performed at 7 Tesla on 9 healthy controls and 9 people with MS found the venous volume in MS lesions was significantly higher than corresponding regions of controls. 10-24-2013
366 Jugular venous reflux and brain parenchyma volumes in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease C Beggs, CP Chung, N Bergsland, PN Wang, S Shepherd, CY Cheng, MG Dwyer, HH Hu, R Zivadinov Oct-2013 Full Content Sixteen people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), 33 people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 18 healthy elderly controls were evaluated for jugular venous reflux (JVR) by duplex ultrasonography and MRI. Surprisingly, JVR in people with AD and MCI was associated with increased whole brain and gray matter volumes. 11-12-2013
368 Efficacy and safety of cutting balloons for the treatment of obstructive lesions in the internal jugular veins. M Kazibudzki, P Latacz, T Ludyga, M Simka Oct-2013 Abstract Endovascular treatment using cutting balloons during 70 procedures in 65 people with MS found they could be safely used for stenosed jugular veins, and in some cases may replace stents. 11-12-2013
372 Venous endothelial injury in central nervous system diseases JS Alexander, L Prouty, I Tsunoda, CV Ganta, A Minagar Oct-2013 Full Content This is a comprehensive review of the pathophysiology of MS, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), peudotumor cerebri, and optic neuritis, with an emphasis on the roles of the venous vascular system programming and dysfunction in their pathogenesis. 11-20-2013
377 Internal Jugular Veins Outflow in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Catheter Venography Study P Veroux, A Giaquinta, D Perricone, L Lupo, F Gentile, C Virgilio, A Carbonara, C DePasquale, M Veroux Oct-2013 Abstract Catheter venography of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) of 313 people with MS and 12 with end-stage renal disease found 89% of people had moderate or severe delayed blood flow in at least one IJV and 79% had moderate or severe delayed flow in both IJVs. Venous angioplasty was effective in a minority of people with severely delayed flow. 11-29-2013
383 The role of chronic venous insufficiency in the pathogenesis of brain diseases. A Wisniewski, B Ksiazkiewicz, A Wisniewska Oct-2013 Abstract This paper (in Polish) describes the role of venous circulatory disorders which may contribute to a number of nervous system diseases. 01-01-2014
481 CCSVI-A. A call to clinicians and scientists to vocalize in an Internet age AR Gafson, G Giovannoni Oct-2013 Abstract The author suggests clinicians and scientists engage with the public to ensure scientific discoveries are interpreted appropriately. 04-13-2016
352 Meta-Analysis of the Correlation Between Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis BA Zwischenberger, MM Beasley, DL Davenport, ES Xenos Sep-2013 Abstract This meta-analysis of literature from January 2005 through February 2013 evaluated the frequency of CCSVI diagnosed by echo color Doppler. The analysis found a correlation between CCSVI and MS. There was no evidence CCSVI had a causative role. 09-07-2013
353 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency--pathophysiology and treatment. M Tuchendler, J Zwolinski, J Stankowski, N Zapotoczny, W Witkiewicz, M Piatkowski Sep-2013 Abstract This article in Polish describes CCSVI, the controversies and experimental treatment being performed to evaluate neurological outcomes. 09-07-2013
355 Observational case-control study of the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: results from the CoSMo study G Comi, MA Battaglia, A Bertolotto, M Del Sette, A Ghezzi, G Malferrari, M Salvetti, MP Sormani, L Tesio, E Stolz, G Mancardi Sep-2013 Full Content Sonography was used to evaluate 1165 people with MS, 226 people with other neurological diseases (OND) and 376 healthy controls (HC) for CCSVI. CCSVI prevalence was 3.26% for people with MS, 3.10% for people with OND, and 2.13% for HC. CCSVI is not associated with MS. 09-30-2013
356 Goodbye to all that: a short history of CCSVI M Rasminsky, K terBrugge Sep-2013 Full Content This editorial argues that primarily in light of the CoSMos study and that of J Wolisnky, CCSVI clinical trials should not be pursued. 09-30-2013
357 Internal jugular and vertebral vein volume flow in patients with clincially isolated syndrome or mild multiple sclerosis and healthy controls: results from a prospective sonographer-blinded study. B Chambers, J Chambers, L Churilov, H Cameron, R Macdonell Sep-2013 Abstract Using ultrasound to assess internal jugular and vertebral vein volume researchers found no significant differences between people suspected of MS, or mild MS and controls. 09-30-2013
359 Cerebral arterial and venous blood flow in adolescent multiple sclerosis patients and age-matched controls using phase contrast MRI. CK Macgowan, KY Chan, S Laughlin, RA Marrie, B Banwell Sep-2013 Abstract Blood flow was measured in the left and right internal carotid arteries (IGA), vertebral arteries (VA), IJVs, and epidural veins (EV) of 26 adolescents with MS and 26 controls. A non significant trend to lower flow in the left IJV and higher flow pulsatility in the EV veins was noted in adolescents with MS. Two adolescents with MS had CCSVI. 10-18-2013
343 The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency P Zamboni, E Menegatti, S Occhionorelli, F Salvi Aug-2013 Full Content This review notes: a) 12 studies which used catheter venography as the diagnostic tool demonstrated a greater than 90% prevalence of CCSVI in people with MS; (b) global hypoperfusion of the brain and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in people with MS are linked to CCSVI; (c) balloon angioplasty is safe; and,(d) the role of CCSVI in the pathology of neurological disorders is inconclusive. 08-13-2013
344 Longitudinal MR Imaging of Iron in Multiple Sclerosis: An Imaging Marker of Disease. AJ Walsh, G Blevins, RM Lebel, P Seres, DJ Emery, AH Wilman Aug-2013 Abstract This study of 17 people with MS and 17 controls examined twice (two years apart) found significant changes in deep gray matter iron content in people with MS that was strongly related to physical disability. 08-13-2013
345 Doppler Ultrasound Examination of Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Control Participants: Inter-observer Agreement and Association with Disease. SJ Laukontaus, T Kagayama, M Lepantolo, S Atulo, M Farkkila, A Alback, Y Inoue, P Tienari, M Venermo Aug-2013 Abstract This prospective, blinded controlled study of 82 people with MS and 40 controls found the feasibility of CCSVI criteria for common use was questionable because of low inter-observer agreement. Small caliber internal jugular veins (IJVs) were common in controls and people with MS. 08-13-2013
348 Feasibility and safety of endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. T Lupatelli, G Bellagamba, E Righi, V Di Donna, I Flaishman, R Faziolo, F Garaci, P Onorati Aug-2013 Abstract Venography was performed in 1999 people with MS and CCSVI. At 30 days the major complication rate was 0.6% and the minor complication rate 2.5%, suggesting endovascular treatment for CCSVI is safe. The vast majority of complications occurred in the first 400 procedures. 08-27-2013
349 Comparison of Intravascular Ultrasound with Conventional Venography for Detection of Extracranial Venous Abnormalities Indicative of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency. Y Karmon, R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman, K Marr, V Valnarov, K Dolic, CL Kennedy, D Hojnacki, EM Carl, J Hagemeier, LN Hopkins, EI Levy, AH Siddiqui Aug-2013 Abstract In a study of 30 people with RRMS intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) showed a higher rater of abnormalities than venography. IVUS provides a diagnostic advantage over conventional venography in detecting CCSVI. 08-27-2013
350 Careful Application of the Recommended Protocols Improve Reproducibility and Permit Comparison Among CCSVI Studies. P Zamboni, M Tessari Aug-2013 Full Content In this letter to the editor the authors identify factors that contributed to the findings by Canadian researchers that CCSVI was not associated with MS. 08-27-2013
351 Evidence against the Involvement of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis. A Case-Control Study IW Rodger, D Dilar, J Dwyer, J Bienenstock, A Coret, J Coret-Simon, G Foster, A Granchetto, S Franic, CH Goldsmith, D Koff, NB Konyer, M Levine, et al Aug-2013 Full Content This Canadian study of 100 people with MS and 100 controls utilizing ultrasound imaging of deep cerebral and neck veins as well as MRI imaging of the neck and brain found 1 person with MS and CCSVI. It concludes CCSVI is not involved in MS. 08-27-2013
354 Jugular Interventions for Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency JP Vachon, GP Siskin Aug-2013 Abstract This is a reference to a chapter in a book entitled Endovascular Interventions-A Case Based Approach, copyright 2014. 09-07-2013
381 Endothelial PDGF-BB produced ex vivo correlates with relevant hemodynamic parameters in patients affected by chronic venous disease V Tisato, P Zamboni, E Menegatti, S Gianesini, I Volpi, G Zauli, P Secchiero Aug-2013 Abstract This study found a relationship between chronic venous disease (CVD) and inflammatory and immune modulating cytokines that are seen in MS. 12-12-2013
329 Spiral vein graft for internal jugular bypass in a patient with multiple sclerosis and suspected chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. GT Fankhauser, WM Stone, R Fu, SR Money Jul-2013 Abstract This is a case report of a 45 year old man with suspected CCSVI who underwent venous reconstruction after repeated angioplasties were unsuccessful in keeping the vein open. Improvement was noted after surgery until the reconstructed vein occluded. 07-09-2013
330 "People power" or "pester power"? YouTube as a forum for the generation of evidence and patient advocacy. F Mazanderani, B O'Neill, J Powell Jul-2013 Full Content The authors conducted a content analysis of the 100 most viewed YouTube videos out of 4000 about CCSVI. Health professionals should engage with digital media content to understand 'experiential-evidence' and its importance. 07-09-2013
331 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: masked multimodal imaging assessment. SA Brod, LA Kramer, AM Cohen, AD Barreto, TT Bui, JR Jemelka, K Ton, JW Lindsey, F Nelson, PA Narayana, JS Wolinsky Jul-2013 Full Content Neurosonograhy (NS), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and transluminal venography (TRV) were performed on subsets of people with MS. Findings do not support altered venous outflow dynamics as common in MS nor likely to contribute to the disease process. 07-09-2013
332 Prevalence of Incidental Narrowing of the Superior Segment of the Internal Jugular Vein in Patients Without Multiple Sclerosis. FE Diehn, KM Schwartz, CH Hunt, LJ Eckel, NG Campeau, RE Carter, JB Allred, DF Kallmes Jul-2013 Abstract An analysis of internal jugular veins (IJV) of 164 people without MS who underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) found the superior IJV appearance occlusive or near occlusive in approximately 1/4 of the people. 07-09-2013
333 An ultrasound model to calculate the brain blood outflow through collateral vessels: a pilot study P Zamboni, F Sisini, E Menegatti, A Taibi, AM Malagoni, S Morovic, M Gambaccini Jul-2013 Full Content In an ultrasound study model of 10 people with CCSVI and 10 healthy controls, blood flow in the internal jugular vein (IJV) junction was significantly lower in the supine position in people with CCSVI. This suggests collateral veins play a pivotal role in CCSVI conditions. 07-21-2013
334 Small internal jugular veins with restricted outflow are associated with severe multiple sclerosis: a songographer-blinded, case-control ultrasound study E Krsmanovi, M Ivkovi, T Lepi, A Stankovi, R Rai Evi, IE Din Jul-2013 Full Content In this ultrasound study of 67 people with MS and 21 healthy controls small internal jugular veins (IJVs) with restricted outflow were independently associated with the severity of MS. 07-21-2013
335 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is not associated with cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. RH Benedict, B Weinstock-Guttman, K Marr, V Valnarov, C Kennedy, E Carl, C Brooks, D Hojnacki, R Zivadinov Jul-2013 Full Content Doppler ultrasound identified CCSVI in 58.7 % (64) of 107 people with MS. There was no evidence of an association between the presence and severity of CCSVI and cognitive impairment or depression.` 07-21-2013
336 A comparative study of magnetic resonance venography techniques for the evaluation of the internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis patients. MT Rahman, SK Sethi, DT Utriainen, JJ Hewtt, EM Haacke Jul-2013 Full Content Specialized MR techniques were used to assess extra-cranial vasculature in 170 people with MS and 40 healthy controls. One technique was better at identifying vascular anatomy but it does not provide information about blood flow. 07-21-2013
337 No evidence for CCSVI in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with moderate disability. M Juenemann, M Yeniguen, E Stolz, M Berghoff Jul-2013 Title Only No abstract available. 07-21-2013
339 No Evidence for Impairment of Venous Hemodynamics in Children or Young Adults with Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis. S Laughlin, CK Macgowan, J Traubici, K Chan, S Khan, DL Arnold, RA Marrie, B Banwell Jul-2013 Full Content CCSVI was rarely observed in 26 children or 13 young adults with pediatric onset MS. Venous outflow was intact in children with MS. 07-30-2013
340 Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS? MP Quinn, M Kremenchutzky, RS Menon Jul-2013 Full Content The presence of veins in MS lesions was noted in the earliest descriptions of the disease. Early presentation of venocentric lesions highly predicts a future diagnosis of MS. More research is needed to determine if this is a unique biomarker for MS. 07-30-2013
341 Internal jugular venous abnormalities in transient monocular blindness CY Cheng, FC Chang, AC Chao, CP Chung, HH Hu Jul-2013 Full Content Comparing 23 people with transient monocular blindness (TMB) and 23 healthy controls, researchers found significantly more moderate or severe internal jugular vein (IJV) compression or stenosis in people with TMB. Cerebral venous outflow abnormality is one of the etiologies of TMB. 07-30-2013
346 Cognitive impairment and "invisible symptoms" are not associated with CCSVI in MS C Leone, E D'Amico, S Cilia, A Nicoletti, L Di Pino, F Patti Jul-2013 Full Content This study of 61 people with MS (27 CCSVI positive) did not find a significant association between the presence of CCSVI and cognitive impairment or other MS symptoms such as fatigue, depression, bladder and sexual disorders or self-reported quality of life. 08-13-2013
317 Endovascular diagnosis and management of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: retrospective analysis of 30-day morbidity and mortality in 95 consecutive patients. H Ferra, G Behrens, Y Tumer, M Riemenschneider Jun-2013 Abstract Venous lesions requiring treatment were found in 94.7% (90) of 95 consecutive people with MS. Evaluation and management of CCSVI 30 days post treatment found it was safe. 05-28-2013
321 Funding CCSVI research is/was a waste of valuable time, money and intellectual energy: Commentary. M Hutchinson Jun-2013 Full Content This commentary argues that there is no logic to the hypothesis of CCSVI and MS. 06-02-2013
322 Funding CCSVI research is/was a waste of valuable time, money and intellectual energy: No. R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman Jun-2013 Full Content This article presents arguments supporting the need to continue to pursue research on CCSVI in MS and other neurological diseases. 06-02-2013
323 Funding CCSVI research is/was a waste of valuable time, money and intellectual energy: Yes. A Ghezzi Jun-2013 Full Content This article presents arguments for not pursuing research on CCSVI. A scientific cause and effect relationship between CCSVI and MS has not been proven. 06-02-2013
324 The role of noninvasive and invasive diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of extra-cranial venous system anomalies and developmental variants K Dolic, AH Siddiqui, Y Karmon, K Marr, R Zivadinov Jun-2013 Full Content This review (with numerous illustrations) summarizes current knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities to detect extra-cranial venous anomalies and developmental variants associated with CCSVI. The role of the anomalies in MS, other neurological diseases and aging remains unproven. 06-30-2013
325 Percutaneous transluminal angiplasty for treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in people with multiple sclerosis: a summary of a Cochrane systematic review. EJ van Zuuren, Z Fedorowicz, E Pucci, V Jagannath, EW Robak Jun-2013 Abstract A Cochrane review found there is currently no high level of evidence to support or refute the safety or effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for treatment of CCSVI in people with MS. 06-30-2013
326 Cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes in multiple sclerosis patients during head-up tilt table test: effect of high-dose intravenous sterioid treatment. Z Mezei, L Olah, L Kardos, RK Kovacs, L Csiba, T Csepany Jun-2013 Abstract In 30 people with MS (11 with acute relapses treated with corticosteroids) compared to 10 healthy controls, researchers found cerebrovascular autoregulation impairments were detectable in early MS. Steroid treatment had a signifcant effect on hemodynamic changes in acute relapses. 06-30-2013
327 Concomitant analysis of arterial, venous, and CSF flows using phase-contrast MRI: a quantitative comparison between MS patients and healthy controls. S Elsankari, O Baledent, V van Pesch, C Sindic, Q de Broqueville, T Duprez Jun-2013 Abstract Phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI) compared CSF, venous and arterial flows of 19 people with MS and 21 healthy controls. No significant differences in venous cerebral or cervical outflow were observed. There was an unexpected decrease in arterial perfusion in people with MS which needs further study. 06-30-2013
328 Multiple sclerosis, blood flow, and CSF circulation. J Wuerfel Jun-2013 Title Only No abstract available. 06-30-2013
358 Cerebral venous circulatory system evaluation by ultrasonography. I Zavoreo, V Basic-Kes, L Zadro-Matovina, M Lisak, L Coric, T Cvjeticanin, D Ciliga, TT Bobic Jun-2013 Abstract Possible intracranial and extracranial ultrasound evaluations of the head and neck venous circulation are presented. 10-18-2013
316 The omohyoid muscle entrapment of the internal jugular vein. A still unclear pathogenetic mechanism S Gianesini, E Menegatti, F Mascoli, F Salvi, S Bastianello, P Zamboni May-2013 Full Content In this case report of a person with MS and CCSVI the omohyoid muscle was externally compressing the internal jugular vein. Two years after surgical correction no relapses,an improved EDSS and absence of chronic fatigue were noted. 05-28-2013
313 Incidence and distribution of extravascular compression of extracranial venous pathway in patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis R Djordje, I Nenad, K Jovo, S Dragan, A Želimar, T Slobodan, A Nikola, B Srdjan, O Petar May-2013 Abstract In 51 people with MS and CCSVI significant (> 70%) extravascular compression was found in 26 people (51%). This compression was primarily caused by a specific area of cervical vertebrae. 05-14-2013
314 Catheter venography for the assessment of internal jugular veins and azygous vein: Position statement by expert panel of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease M Simka, D Hubbard, AH Siddiqui, MD Dake, SJA Sclafani, M Al-Omari, CG Eisele, ZJ Haskal, T Ludyga, ZV Miloševič, H Sievert, MK Stehling, S Zapf, M Zorc May-2013 Abstract This article by members of the International Society of Neurovascular Disease (ISNVD) presents current technique and interpretation of catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, azygous vein and other veins draining the central nervous system. 05-14-2013
315 Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: dichotomy between subjective and objective outcome scores. S Zagaglia, S Balestrini, E Perticaroli, MC Danni, S Luzzi, M Silvestrini, L Provinciali May-2013 Abstract Objective and subjective outcome measures utilized 12 months after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in 44 people with MS and CCSVI reflect different outcomes of PTA. For example, the objective measures noted disability worsening after PTA, but the Multiple Sclerosis-Quality of Life-54 Scale (MS-QoL-54) found improvements in physical and mental health. 05-14-2013
318 Venous hemodynamics in neurological disorders: an analytical review with hydrodynamic analysis CB Beggs May-2013 Full Content This paper reviews venous abnormalities in MS, leukoaraiosis, and normal- pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). CCSVI appears to be associated with MS but its role in the pathology of MS is unclear. 06-02-2013
320 On the Historical Succession of Vessel-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis A Ganesh, FW Stahnisch May-2013 Full Content This is an exploration of vascular hypotheses regarding MS since the 1930s. Vessel based therapies that have been studied include anti-coagulation drugs,vasodilatory drugs, surgical interventions, the Swank low fat diet and CCSVI. 06-02-2013
308 Percutaneous angioplasty of internal jugular and azygous veins in patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: early and mid-term results. D Radak, J Kolar, D Sagic, N Llijevski, S Tanaskovic, N Aleksic, J Marinkovic, A Mitrasinovic, S Radak, S Babic, P Matic, H Vlajinac Apr-2013 Abstract Endovascular treatment of the azygous and internal jugular veins (IJV) of 72 people with MS and CCSVI found that the procedure was safe, signifcantly improved flow of the IJVs and reduced EDSS scores. 04-11-2013
309 Performance on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and cerebral blood flow in multiple sclerosis. M D'haeseleer, C Steen, JM Hoogduin, MJ van Osch, Y Fierens, M Cambron, MW Koch, J DeKeyser Apr-2013 Abstract This study of 18 people with MS and 10 healthy controls suggests that performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was linked to cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a specific part of the brain involved in information processing speed and working memory. 04-11-2013
312 Abnormalities of cerebral blood flow in multiple sclerosis: A pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI study. M Ota, N Sato, Y Nakata, K Ito, K Kamiya, N Maikusa, M Ogawa, T Okamoto, S Obu, T Noda, M Araki, T Yamamura, H Kunugi Apr-2013 Abstract Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in 27 people with MS and 24 healthy volunteers using a special MRI technique, arterial spin labeling (ASL). Reduced CBF bilaterally in the thalami and right frontal region of the brain was found in people with MS. 04-21-2013
319 Relation between bilateral differences in internal jugular vein caliber and flow patterns of dural venous sinuses K Saiki, T Tsurumoto, K Okamoto, T Wakebe Apr-2013 Full Content The internal jugular veins (IJV), sizes of the left and right transverse sinuses (TS), and the drainage patterns of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) were evaluated in 91 cadavers. A relationship was found among these components that impact the diameter of the IJVs. 06-02-2013
302 An observational study of venoplasty in patients with multiple sclerosis. W Pryse-Phillips, M Stefanelli, K Murphy-Peddle, B Barrett Mar-2013 Abstract Objective, semi-objective and subjective measures found no objective improvement at one year in 30 people who had venoplasty. Many people (about half) reported a degree of subjective improvement. 03-02-2013
303 Iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis: an early pathogenic event. SM Levine, M Bilgen, SG Lynch Mar-2013 Abstract Iron deposition is an early pathological event in MS. Identifying the mechanisms of iron accumulation and determining if it promotes MS pathogenesis are important areas of future research. 03-02-2013
304 Clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis patients following venous angioplasty. J Oh, P O'Connor Mar-2013 Title Only No abstract available. 03-02-2013
306 Changes of Cine Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Treated with Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty: Case-control Study. R Zivadinov, C Magnano, R Galeotti, C Schirda, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, K Marr, I Bartolomei, J Hagemeier, M Malagoni, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, C Beggs, F Salvi, P Zamboni Mar-2013 Abstract Angioplasty improved cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and decreased CSF velocity in this study of 15 people with RRMS and CCSVI. The changes in CSF flow and velocity were linked to better clinical and MR outcomes and were indicative of improved venous drainage. 04-03-2013
307 Iron Is a Sensitive Biomarker for Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions V Mehta, W Pei, G Yang, S Li, E Swamy, A Boster, P Schmalbrock, D Pitt Mar-2013 Full Content In an exploration of the role of lesional iron in MS, researchers found iron was a specific biomarker for inflammation. This may provide important information on disease status and treatment efficacy. 04-03-2013
310 The Evidence for Hypoperfusion as a Factor in Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Development BHJ Juurlink Mar-2013 Full Content This article reviews the evidence on reduced blood flow (hypoperfusion) in the brain as a factor in the development of MS lesions. Clinical trials addressing vascular issues should examine the impact of interventions on white matter perfusion recovery and functional clinical outcomes. 04-11-2013
311 Central Veins in Brain Lesions Visualized With High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pathologically Specific Diagnostic Biomarker for Inflammatory Demyelination in the Brain. N Mistry, J Dixon, E Tallantyre, C Tench, R Abdel-Fahim, T Jaspan, PS Morgan, P Morris, N Evangelou Mar-2013 Abstract After a diagnosis of possible MS, 7 Telsa MRI revealed central veins in the majority of lesions in people who were eventually diagnosed with MS. Central veins were not present in the majority of lesions of people who were not diagnosed with MS. 7-T MRI had 100% positive and negative predictive value for the diagnosis of MS. 04-11-2013
291 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a highly prevalent age-dependent phenomenon R Lanzillo, M Mancini, R Liuzzi, O Di Donato, E Salvatore, V Maglio, G Vacca, L Amato, G D'Anna, A Brunetti, V Brescia Morra Feb-2013 Full Content Three independent examiners evaluated 146 people with MS (CIS, RRMS, SPMS and PPMS) and 38 healthy controls (HC) using Doppler sonography. CCSVI was found in 76% of people with MS and 16% of HCs. CCSVI in people with MS appeared to be associated with age but not with the clinical course of the disease. 02-17-2013
292 The value of Doppler cerebral parameters to assess a group of patients with multiple sclerosis A Coteanu, S Gusti, C Coteanu Feb-2013 Full Content This study of cerebral venous hemodynamics in 27 people with MS and 30 healthy controls found 60% of people with MS had persistent reflux in the internal jugular vein. This was significant in the pathology of MS. 02-17-2013
293 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: A sonographer-blinded case-control study. D Imperiale, F Melis, C Giaccone, M Guido, E Milano, C Buffa, L Appendino Feb-2013 Abstract This doppler ultrasound study of 80 people with MS, 41 healthy controls and 40 people with other neurological diseases found no association between CCSVI and MS. A weak association between internal jugular vein stenosis and MS was found. 02-17-2013
294 "Media, politics and science policy: MS and evidence from the CCSVI Trenches" D Pullman, A Zarzeczny, A Picard Feb-2013 Full Content A health journalist, health law and policy scholar and a medical ethicist present perspectives on the CCSVI debate. 02-17-2013
295 Adverse events after endovascular treatment of chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in patients with multiple sclerosis. A Ghezzi, P Annovazzi, M Amato, E Capello, P Cavallo, E Cocco, M Falcini, A Gallo, F Patti, P Perini, M Rodegher, M Rovaris, M Rottoli, G Comi, the MS Study Group--Italian Society of Neurology Feb-2013 Abstract This study to evaluate clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment (ET) for CCSVI found 15 of 462 people exerienced serious adverse events (SAE). Jugular vein thrombosis (in 7 people) appeared to be the most prevalent SAE. There was 1 death 10 weeks after ET. 02-17-2013
300 The "central vein sign": is there a place for susceptibility weighted imaging in possible multiple sclerosis? T Kau, M Taschwer, H Deutschmann, M Schönfelder, JR Weber, KA Hausegger Feb-2013 Abstract Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) adds diagnostic information in people with possible MS. The "central vein sign" (CVS) was found predominantly in MS lesions and helps discriminate between MS and non-MS lesions. 03-02-2013
301 What went wrong? The flawed concept of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency JM Valdueza, F Doepp, SJ Schreiber, BW van Oosten, K Schmierer, P Friedemann, MP Wattjes Feb-2013 Full Content This is a comprehensive review and overview of the methodological flaws and pathophysiological implausibility of the 'CCSVI' concept. There is no basis to diagnose or treat 'CCSVI' outside of scientific research. 03-02-2013
298 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Is Not Associated with Multiple Sclerosis and Its Severity: A Blind-Verified Study MA Leone, O Raymkulova, P Naldi, P Lochner, L Bolamperti, L Coppo, A Stecco, W Liboni Feb-2013 Full Content Blinded Doppler exams of 68 people with MS and 68 healthy controls detected CCSVI in 21 people with MS (30.9%) and 23 (33.8%) of controls. Prevalence of CCSVI was related to age in people with MS but not in controls. 02-24-2013
286 Endovascular treatment of CCSVI in patients with multiple sclerosis: clinical outcome of 462 cases. A Ghezzi, P Annovazzi, E Cocco, G Coarelli, A Lugaresi, M Rovaris, F Patti, E Capello, ME Rodegher, L Moiola, S Malucchi, G Salemi, N De Rossi, L Provinciali, P Perini, R Bergamaschi, et al, The MS Study Group--Italian Society of Neurology Jan-2013 Abstract Endovascular treatment (ET) of 462 people with MS was assessed by structured questionnaire before and an average of 31 weeks after ET. The average EDSS remained unchanged and 98 people (21%) experienced a relapse. Serious adverse events were recorded in 3.2% of cases. 02-03-2013
285 Venous embryology: the key to understanding anomalous venous conditons BB Lee Jan-2013 Full Content This is a detailed review of the development of venous malformations in embryos. They can explain many defects resulting in venous anomalies later in life that may have serious hemodynamic consequences. 01-24-2013
287 MR imaging of the yucatan pig head and neck vasculature. CA Habib, D Utriainen, J Peduzzi-Nelson, E Dawe, J Mattei, Z Latif, K Casey, EM Haacke Jan-2013 Abstract The cerebral venous drainage of 3 pigs was assessed to evaluate them for use as a probable model to test whether extracranial venous abnormalities may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. 02-03-2013
289 Italian multicentre observational study of the prevalence of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (CoSMo study): rational, design, and methodology. G Comi, MA Battaglia, A Bertolotto, M Del Sette, A Ghezzi, G Malferrari, M Salvetti, MP Sormani, L Tesio, E Stolz, G Mancardi Jan-2013 Abstract This is a description of the methodology and design of the Italian blinded CoSMo study to identify the prevalence of CCSVI in 2000 adults. 02-03-2013
290 Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: A retrospective study. R Alroughani, S Lamdhade, A Thussu Jan-2013 Abstract 45 people with RRMS who had percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) were followed for 1 year after the procedure. PTA was not associated with any neurological improvement. 02-03-2013
338 Mystery of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: Identical Venographic and Ultrasound Findings in Patients with MS and Controls. W McAuliffe, AG Kermode Jan-2013 Abstract No differences were detected in 30 people with MS and 10 controls who underwent sonography. Normal physiological narrowing is very common in the internal jugular veins of healthy people. 07-30-2013
347 Intracranial nonjugular venous pathways: a possible compensatory drainage mechanism. M Kopelman, A Glik, S Greenberg, I Shelef Jan-2013 Abstract This study of 64 people without neurological diseases found nonjugular venous pathways may serve as a compensatory drainage compartment in the brain that may become less significant with age. 08-27-2013
276 Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in multiple sclerosis patients. EJ van Zuuren, Z Fedorowicz, E Pucci, VA Jagannath, EW Robak Dec-2012 Abstract This Cochrane Review found there is currently no high level of evidence to support or refute the efficacy or safety of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for CCSVI in people with MS. Well designed controlled trials are needed. 12-22-2012
277 Initial investigation of the blood-brain barrier in MS lesions at 7 telsa. MI Gaitán, P Sati, SJ Inati, DS Reich Dec-2012 Abstract An MRI study of lesion formation in 8 people with MS found most lesions (73%) formed around a vein. Data support the idea that lesions grow outward from a central vein. 12-22-2012
278 Multiple sclerosis shrinks intralesional, and enlarges extralesional, brain parenchymal veins. MI Gaitán, MP de Alwis, P Sati, G Nair, DS Reich Dec-2012 Abstract The size of some veins examined in the brains of 19 people with MS and 9 healthy controls found smaller veins within MS lesions. Veins located around and outside lesions in people with MS were larger than the veins in people without MS. 12-22-2012
279 Serious Complication of Percutaneous Angioplasty with Stent Implantation in so Called "Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency" in Multiple Sclerosis Patient O Dolezal, D Horzkovz, Z Gdovinovz, J Szilasiovz Dec-2012 Full Content This is a case report of a 51 year old woman treated for CCSVI. Two implanted stents dislocated on the right and thrombosis occurred in the left stent. Her EDSS worsened after the procedure. Furthur complications are possible. Restricting treatment is urged. 12-22-2012
281 Optic Nerve and its Arterial-Venous Vascularization: An Ultrasonologic Study in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Healthy Controls. N Carraro, G Servillo, VM Sarra, A Bignamini, G Pizzolato, M Zorzon Dec-2012 Abstract Optic nerve arteries and veins were examined by ultrasound in 46 people with RRMS (22 with previous optic neuritis, ON) and 37 healthy controls. No significant differences in flow variables were found between people with MS (including those with previous ON) and healthy controls. 01-04-2013
288 Results from 823 consecutive Duplex exams for CCSVI in a Vascular Centre PM Bavera, GB Agus, D Alpini, P Cecconi, A Guazzoni, A Tori, E Constantin, T Lupatelli Dec-2012 Abstract In a study of 823 people with MS and 60 controls, CCSVI was diagnosed in 90% of people with MS and 0% of controls. Of the 127 people examined after treatment for CCSVI, 69% (88) were negative for CCSVI. This was associated with symptom improvement. 02-03-2013
299 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: Case-Control Neurosonography Results AD Baretto, SA Brod, TT Bui, J Jemelka, L Kramer, K Ton, A Cohen, JW Lindsey, F Nelson, PA Narayana, JS Wolinsky Dec-2012 Full Content Examinations found 3.88% of 206 people with MS had CCSVI and 7.14% of 70 people without MS had CCSVI. No significant differences were found between people with and without MS for extracranial or intracranial venous flow rates. 02-24-2013
305 Dexmedetomidine for monitored anesthesia care in patients undergoing liberation procedure for multiple sclerosis: An observational study S Anand, A Bhatia, Rajkumar, H Sapra, V Gupta, Y Mehta Dec-2012 Full Content Dexmedetomidine, an anesthetic, was used in 60 people with MS who underwent angioplasty. Continuous monitoring found it could be used as the sole sedative for the procedure. 03-21-2013
342 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency diagnostics L Grozdinski, I Petrov, M Iloska Dec-2012 Abstract Doppler ultrasound examinations of 138 people with MS and 40 controls, identified CCSVI in 89% of people with MS and 10% of controls. Ultrasound was highly sensitive and accurate for a diagnosis of CCSVI. 07-30-2013
268 Increased iron accumulation occurs in the earliest stages of demyelinating disease: an ultra-high field susceptibility mapping study in Clinically Isolated Syndrome. AM Al-Radaideh, SJ Wharton, SY Lim, CR Tench, PS Morgan, RW Bowtell, CS Constantinescu, PA Gowland Nov-2012 Abstract The amount of iron in the deep gray matter of 19 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS was compared to that of 20 healthy controls. People with CIS showed increased accumulation of iron, suggesting that iron changes occur in early CIS. 11-19-2012
269 Occurrence of CCSVI in patients with MS and its relationship with iron metabolism and varicose veins. PJ Van den Berg, GB Van den Berg, LW Westerhuis, LH Visser Nov-2012 Abstract Colour Doppler showed CCSVI in 8 (9%) of 90 people with MS and 0 in 41 healthy controls. No relationship was found between CCSVI and impaired iron metabolism. CCSVI is uncommon and related to more neurological disability and the presence of varicose veins. 11-19-2012
270 Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in a patient with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and persistent left superior vena cava. T Lupattelli, F Benassi, E Righi, P Bavera, G Bellagamba Nov-2012 Abstract This is a case report of a 57 year old person with CCSVI in whom the drainage from the left IJV to the right atrium occurred through a venous anomaly, the persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). 11-19-2012
271 Assessment of jugular endovascular malformations in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: colour-Doppler scanning and catheter venography compared with intravascular ultrasound. F Scalise, M Farina, M Manfredi, C Auguadro, E Novelli Nov-2012 Abstract 45 people with MS and CCSVI diagnosed by colour- Doppler (CD) underwent catheter venography (CV) during angioplasty. 25 of them also underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). CV was significantly inferior to CD in detecting jugular endoluminal malformations (JEM). CD was useful for correct treatment. 11-19-2012
272 Disability caused by multiple sclerosis is associated with the number of extra cranial venous stenoses: possible improvement by venous angioplasty. Results of a prospective study. M Denislic, Z Milosevic, M Zorc, IZ Ravnik, O Mendiz Nov-2012 Abstract This open label study of 94 people with MS and CCSVI who underwent catheter venography dilation found the number of venous narrowings was associated with more disabilty. A significant improvement in clinical disability was observed in people with RRMS who were treated. 12-06-2012
273 Fibrinogen-induced perivascular mircroglial clustering is required for the development of axonal damage in neuroinflammation D Davalos, JK Ryu, M Merlini, KM Baeten, N Le Moan, MA Petersen, TJ Deerinck, DS Smirnoff, C Bedard, H Hakozaki, S Gonias Murrary, JB Ling, H Lassman, JL Degen, MH Ellisman, K Akassoglou Nov-2012 Full Content In a study of mice, researchers found fibrinogen, a marker of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption and regulator of inflammatory demyelination, was required for perivascular cluster formation, preceded demyelination, and, was required for axonal damage in neuroinflammation. These vascular changes (leakage of fribrin) may be the trigger for MS. 12-06-2012
274 Tissue similarity maps (TSMs): A new means of mapping vascular behavior and calculating relative blood volume in pefusion weighted imaging. EM Haacke, M Li, F Juvvigunta Nov-2012 Abstract Tissue similarity maps (TSMs) may be a new way to study blood flow patterns in brain tissue and to better diagnose vascular differences between tissue and lesions. 12-06-2012
251 Vascular pathology of multiple sclerosis R Zivadinov, SJ Alexander, A Minagar Oct-2012 Full Content This editorial identifies current concepts and recent findings concerning the evaluation, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of the vascular pathology of MS. 09-16-2012
252 CCSVI is associated with multiple sclerosis. S Morovic, P Zamboni Oct-2012 Abstract A recent meta-analysis assessed an over 13 times increased prevalence of CCSVI in MS. Global hypoperfusion of the brain and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics were shown to be related to CCSVI. Autopsy studies show a higher prevalence of intraluminal defects in the main extracranial vein in people with MS compared to controls. 09-16-2012
253 Magnetic resonance imaging signatures of vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis. D Utriainen, G Trifan, S Sethi, S Elias, J Hewett, W Feng, EM Haacke Oct-2012 Abstract State of the art MRI imaging methods in people with MS and CCSVI include assessing vascular structure, flow and brain iron content. 09-16-2012
254 A technical approach to dissecting and assessing cadaveric veins pertinent to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis CI Diaconu, SM Staugaitis, RJ Fox, A Rae-Grant, C Schwanger, JM McBridge Oct-2012 Full Content This article describes the techniques and findings in the examination of veins relevant to CCSVI in cadavers (10 with MS and 10 controls). 09-16-2012
255 Characteristics of flow through the internal jugular veins at cervical C2/C3 and C5/6 levels for multiple sclerosis patients using MR phase contrast imaging. W Feng, D Utriainen, G Trifan, S Elias, S Sethi, J Hewett, EM Haacke Oct-2012 Abstract MRI 3 T imaging assessed 323 people with MS. 100 (31%) were non-stenotic (NST) and 223 (69%) were stenotic (ST). Total blood flow through the IJVs at both the C2/3 and C5/6 levels was reduced in the ST group compared to the NST group. 09-16-2012
256 Arterial, venous and other vascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis. Y Karmon, M Ramanathan, A Minagar, R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman Oct-2012 Abstract This article reviews vascular risk factors with emphasis on lipid abnormalities reported to be associated with MS. 09-16-2012
265 Role of Venoplasty for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: Value of Open-label Studies and Surrogate Treatment Outcomes. R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman Oct-2012 Title Only No abstract available. 11-19-2012
266 Efficacy and safety of venous angioplasty of the extracranial veins for multiple sclerosis. Brave Dreams Study (Brain Venous Drainage Exploited Against Multiple Sclerosis): study protocol for a randomized clinical trial P Zamboni, A Bertolotto, P Boldrini, P Cenni, R D'Alessandro, R D'Amico, M Del Sette, R Galeotti, S Galimberti, A Liberati, L Massacesi, D Papini, F Salvi, S Simi, A Stella, L Tesio, MG Valsecchi, G Filippini Oct-2012 Full Content 679 people with MS and CCSVI will be enrolled in a randomized, blinded clinical trial (with a sham arm) to assess the safety and impact of percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA) on balance, motor, sensory, visual, and bladder function, and cognitive and emotional status. Post treatment assessment at 12 months will also include information on relapse rate and EDSS. 11-19-2012
267 Cerebral venous outflow resistance and interpretation of cervical plethysmography data with respect to the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. C Beggs, S Shepherd, P Zamboni Oct-2012 Abstract A specialized collar around the necks of 40 healthy controls and 44 people with CCSVI was utilized to measure cerebral venous resistance. The haemodynamics of the extracranial venous system were greatly altered in people with CCSVI. 11-19-2012
282 Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient M Simka, E Majewski, M Fortuna, M Zaniewski Oct-2012 Full Content This case report discusses the potential implications of muscular compression of an internal jugular vein. 01-16-2013
362 Influence of Acute Jugular Vein Compression on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Pial Artery Pulsation and Width of Subarachnoid Space in Humans AF Frydrychowski, PJ Winklewski, W Guminski Oct-2012 Full Content This study clarifies the potential mechanism linking jugular outflow insufficiency with arterial small vessel cerebral disease. 10-18-2013
246 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is not more prevalent in patients with mild multiple sclerosis: a sonographer-blinded, case-control ultrasound study. B Chambers, J Chambers, H Cameron, R Macdonell Sep-2012 Abstract An ultraound study of 70 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or mild RRMS (EDSS = 2 or less) compared to 70 controls did not identify increased CCSVI in people with CIS or mild RRMS. An increase in variations in internal jugular veins was found in people with CIS and mild RRMS. 09-16-2012
250 Cerebral vein changes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis demonstrated by three-dimensional enhanced T (2) (*)-weighted angiography at 3.0 T. C Zeng, X Chen, Y Li, Y Ouyang, F Lv, R Rumzan, Z Wang Sep-2012 Abstract 53 people with RRMS and 53 healthy controls underwent normal and specialized MRI to examine the internal cerebral and deep medullary veins. The internal cerebral veins were abnormal in people with RRMS. Disease duration impacted deep medullary veins. 09-16-2012
263 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: state of the art and research challenges M Simka Sep-2012 Full Content This review discusses a potential vascular basis for MS and notes that well designed clinical trials are needed to validate efficacy of treatment. 11-19-2012
264 Compressive syndrome of internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis: does it matter? D Radak, S Tanaskovic, Z Antonic, J Kolar, N Aleksic, N Ilijevski Sep-2012 Abstract A woman with CCSVI and MS treated with angioplasty had haemodynamic improvement despite external compression of the IJVs. 11-19-2012
240 Multiple Sclerosis and CCSVI: A Population-Based Case Control Study F Patti, A Nicoletti, C Leone, S Messina, E D'Amico, S Lo Fermo, V Paradisi, E Bruno, G Quattrocchi, P Veroux, L Di Pino, L Costanzo, M Zappia Aug-2012 Full Content Evaluation by Doppler ultrasound detected CCSVI in 28 (18.9%) of 140 people with MS, 2 (10%) of 20 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 11 (6.4%) of 172 controls and in 2 (5%) of 40 people with other neurological diseases (OND). A significant association between CCSVI and MS was found. This was more evident in people with advanced MS and suggests CCSVI could be related to MS disability. 08-08-2012
241 Polymorphisms in the genes coding for iron binding and transporting proteins are associated with disability, severity, and early progression in multiple sclerosis D Gemmati, G Zeri, E Orioli, FE De Gaetano, F Salvi, I Bartolomei, S D'Alfonso, C Dall'Osso, MA Leone, AV Singh, R Asselta, P Zamboni Aug-2012 Full Content A subset of the main iron homeostasis genes were explored in 273 people with RRMS, 103 with SPMS, 38 with PPMS and 414 matched healthy controls. The gene variants examined were associated with disability, severity and early progression in people with MS. 08-15-2012
242 Clinical Improvement after Extracranial Venoplasty in Multiple Sclerosis D Hubbard, D Ponec, J Gooding, R Saxon, H Sauder, M Haacke Aug-2012 Abstract After venous angioplasty treatment 259 people with MS were followed with the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) at 1 and 6 months. There were statistically significant improvements in clinical scores. Although there was one serious adverse event (which was resolved with treatment), overall the procedure was safe. 09-02-2012
243 Multiple sclerosis, an unlikely cause of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: retrospective analysis of catheter venography M Simka, T Ludyga, M Kazibudzki, P Latacz, M Świerad Aug-2012 Full Content An analysis of data from 353 people with MS, with a median disease duration of 10 years, indicated venous malformations are most likely congenital, and therefore not caused by MS. 09-02-2012
244 Brain Hemodynamic Changes Associated with Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Are Not Specific to Multiple Sclerosis and Do Not Increase Its Severity. FG Garaci, S Marziali, A Meschini, M Fornari, S Rossi, M Melis, S Fabiano, M Stefanini, G Simonetti, D Centonze, R Floris Aug-2012 Abstract Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT) in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) were assessed by MRI in 39 people with MS (25, 64%, had CCSVI) and 25 healthy controls (14, 54%, had CCSVI). Individuals with CCSVI showed decreased CBF and CBV. CCSVI had no effect on neurologic function or disability progression in people with MS. 09-02-2012
275 Complications and safety of jugular and azygous angioplasty in CCSVI patients with multiple sclerosis L Varatharajan, TRA Lane, A Thapar, IJ Franklin, AH Davies Aug-2012 Abstract The reporting of CCSVI treatment complication data is sparse, prone to bias and lacks long-term follow-up. Registries and controlled trials are needed to assess safety and efficacy of treatment. 12-12-2012
234 Altered collagen expression in jugular veins in multiple sclerosis. M Coen, E Menegatti, F Salvi, F Mascoli, P Zamboni, G Gabbiani, ML Bochaton-Piallat Jul-2012 Abstract Specimens from the jugular veins of people with MS and controls were examined. The IJVs of people with MS had focal thickening. It is not known if these venous alterations play a role in MS pathogenesis. 07-10-2012
237 IDEAL for CCSVI Research-Reply MA Williams, A Venkatesan Jul-2012 Abstract There are differing views on the ethics of CCSVI clinical research. The authors believe that CCSVI research can be ethically pursued with careful research methods, ethical reviews in accordance with global and local standards, and careful oversight by data safety monitoring boards. 07-24-2012
238 IDEAL for CCSVI Research JA Reekers Jul-2012 Abstract The author is of the opinion that it is impossible to believe that the CCSVI hypothesis is or can be true. Given this scientific doubt any CCSVI trials are unethical and should not be performed. 07-24-2012
247 Levels of Evidence Required to Determine the Benefit of Treating CCSVI to Alleviate Symptoms of MS: An interventional perspective. G Siskin Jul-2012 Full Content An interventional radiologist's (IR's) perspective is that prospective blinded randomized trials, approved by the FDA and demonstrating safety and efficacy, are required before CCSVI treatment may be considered as an option that may improve the lives of people with MS. 09-16-2012
248 Levels of Evidence Required to Determine the Benefit of Treating CCSVI to Alleviate Symptoms of MS: A neurology perspective. PK Coyle, J Burks Jul-2012 Full Content Two neurologists outline requirements to be considered and applied in the design of CCSVI clinical trials and research. A CCSVI collaborative research initiative is in process. 09-16-2012
218 Using magnetic resonance imaging as a means to study chronic cerebral spinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. D Utriainen, W Feng, S Elias, Z Latif, D Hubbard, EM Haacke Jun-2012 Abstract MRI of 111 people with MS to assess for CCSVI structural and flow risk criteria found low total flow in the two dominant veins appeared to be the strongest indicator for risk of stenoses in people with MS. 06-01-2012
219 Catheter venography and endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. K Mandato, M Englander, L Keating, J Vachon, GP Siskin Jun-2012 Abstract This article describes endovascular techniques employed to diagnose and treat people with CCSVI and MS. 06-01-2012
220 Reported outcomes after the endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. CO Hampson, GM Soares, AA Jaffan Jun-2012 Abstract This article presents a brief review of CCSVI and its relationship to MS and reviews existing literature with a focus on outcome data. 06-01-2012
221 Intravascular ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. SJ Sclafani Jun-2012 Abstract Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an imaging tool that is valuable in identifying and treating CCSVI. Potential complications during angioplasty may also be identified. 06-01-2012
222 The use of Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. S McDonald, JB Iceton Jun-2012 Abstract This article describes the technique used by Barrie Vascular Imaging in Ontario to assess patients for CCSVI using Doppler ultrasound. 06-01-2012
223 Placebo power. KB Knox, ME Kelly Jun-2012 Abstract A variable placebo response has been reported in people with MS. The factors and mechanisms associated with placebo should be considered in future studies of endovascular procedures for MS. 06-01-2012
224 Internet-based social networking and its role in the evolution of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. C Vera, A Herr, K Mandato, M Englander, L Ginsburg, GP Siskin Jun-2012 Abstract Internet-based social networking has led to growing awareness of CCSVI and people seeking treatment. This article reviews the social networking phenomenon, resources available to people with MS and responsibilities of physicians. 06-01-2012
226 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: history and background. MD Dake Jun-2012 Abstract This article reviews the history of the relationship between the vascular system and MS and explores basic and clinical investigations that led to the concept of CCSVI. 06-01-2012
228 Sensitivity and specificity of SWI venography for detection of cerebral venous alterations in multiple sclerosis. CB Beggs, SJ Shepherd, MG Dwyer, P Polak, C Magnano, E Carl, GU Poloni, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Jun-2012 Abstract Forty people with MS and 22 controls underwent susceptibility- weighted imaging (SWI) venography. Altered venous vascular visibility (VVV) on SWI venography showed high sensitivity and specificity for MS. 06-24-2012
229 Risk of vascular disease in patients with multiple sclerosis: a review. CF Christiansen Jun-2012 Abstract In the first years after diagnosis this review found MS was associated with an increased risk of vascular diseases, including venous and deep venous blood clots and blood clots in the lung. Over time risk declined but remained elevated for stroke and venous clots. 06-24-2012
230 Multiple Sclerosis and Venous Abnormalities: Medicine in the Age of Social Media. L Machan, K Murphy, T Traboulsee Jun-2012 Title Only No abstract available. 06-24-2012
231 Beyond 'medical tourism': Canadian companies marketing medical travel LG Turner Jun-2012 Full Content This article provides a content analysis of company websites of 35 Canadian businesses that market medical travel. Two companies specialize in CCSVI. 06-24-2012
232 Periventricular venous density in multiple sclerosis is inversely associated with T2 lesion count: a 7 Tesla MRI study. T Sinnecker, I Bozin, J Dorr, CF Pfueller, L Harms, T Niendorf, AU Brandt, F Paul, J Wuerfel Jun-2012 Abstract 7 Tesla MRI performed on 38 people with MS and 22 healthy controls found vascular alterations in early stages of MS. Venous density was significantly less in people with MS than controls. Presumably this is a part of widespread haemodynamic and metabolic alterations. 07-06-2012
233 FDA Warns About the Risks of Unproven Surgical Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis BM Kuehn Jun-2012 Abstract The US FDA issued a safety communication to people with MS and physicians about risks associated with balloon angioplasty or stenting for CCSVI. Benefits of treatment have not been proven. 07-06-2012
235 Retinal abnormalities in multiple sclerosis patients with associated chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency A Adamczyk-Ludyga, J Wrobel, M Simka, T Ludyga, P Latacz Jun-2012 Full Content Examination of the optic nerves and retina via optical coherence tomography (OCT) was done in 239 people with MS (220 with CCSVI). People with MS and unilateral stenosis of the internal jugular vein had a statistically significant higher prevalence of abnormal OCT values. 07-10-2012
204 Editorial [Hot Topic: New Avenues of Research on Multiple Sclerosis from the Perspective of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Paradigm (Guest Editor: Marian Simka)] M Simka May-2012 Full Content This editorial outlines theoretical considerations in the relationship between CCSVI and MS. Research is still in its infancy. 04-21-2012
211 The "liberation procedure" for multiple sclerosis: sacrificing science at the altar of consumer demand. MN Brant-Zawadzki, DS Bandari, JJ Puangco, BB Rubin May-2012 Title Only No abstract available. 05-07-2012
213 CCSVI and MS: no meaning, no fact. C Baracchini, M Atzori, P Gallo May-2012 Abstract This review critically analyzes the scientific basis of CCSVI and concludes CCSVI appears to be an alien condition and its existence should be questioned. 05-10-2012
214 No Association Between Conventional Brain MR Imaging and Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis R Zivadinov, G Cutter, K Marr, M Ramanathan, RHB Benedict, N Bergsland, C Morgan, E Carl, D Hojnacki, EA Yeh, L Willis, M Cherneva, C Kennedy, MG Dwyer, B Weinstock-Guttman May-2012 Full Content MRI imaging studies and an assessment for CCSVI were conducted on 301 people, (73 healthy controls (HCs), 162 with RRMS and 66 with SPMS). CCSVI was not associated with more severe lesion load or brain atrophy in people with MS or HCs. There was a trend for more lesions and less brain volume in people with RRMS and CCSVI. 05-12-2012
215 Surveillance and medical therapy following endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. TL Forbes, JR Harris, SW Kribs May-2012 Abstract The authors propose interim recommendations for post-procedural follow up and medical therapy until more is known about CCSVI. 05-12-2012
216 Clinical correlates of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis B Weinstock-Guttman, M Ramanathan, K Marr, D Hojnacki, RHB Benedict, C Morgan, EA Yeh, E Carl, C Kennedy, J Reuther, C Brooks, K Hunt, M Elfadil, M Andrews, R Zivadinov May-2012 Full Content In this study of 181 people with RRMS, 80 with SPMS, and 12 with PPMS, disability was not associated with the presence or severity of CCSVI. However, the severity of CCSVI was associated with the brainstem functional EDSS sub-score. Progressive MS (SPMS or PPMS) vs. non-progressive status (including RRMS) was associated with CCSVI. 05-15-2012
217 7 Telsa MRI demonstrates vascular pathology in Balo's concentric sclerosis. M Berghoff, M Schlamann, S Maderwald, A Grams, M Kaps, M Ladd, E Gizewski May-2012 Abstract 7 Telsa MRI found microhaemorrhages and disordered veins in a 19 year old person with Balò's concentric sclerosis (BCS is a condition related to MS). The findings may support the view that vascular pathology plays a role in BCS. 05-30-2012
225 CCSVI and MS: a statement from the European Society of neurosonology and cerebral hemodynamics. C Baracchini, JM Valdueza, M Del Sette, G Baltgaile, E Bartels, NM Bornstein, J Klingelhoefer, C Molina, K Niederkorn, M Siebler, M Sturzenegger, BE Ringelstein, D Russel, L Csiba May-2012 Abstract This review of CCSVI criteria found the proposed criteria are questionable due to technical and methodological errors. The European Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics (ESNCH) has concerns regarding the accuracy of the CCSVI criteria and strongly discourages treatment. 06-01-2012
284 Biophysics of venous return from the brain from the perspective of the pathophysiology of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. M Zaniewski, M Simka May-2012 Abstract Biophysics theories suggest that CCSVI may cause destruction of central nervous system (CNS) tissue. 01-16-2013
199 Multigate Quality Doppler Profiles and Morphological/Hemodynamic Alterations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. MM Ciccone, AI Galeandro, P Scicchitano, A Zito Apr-2012 Abstract 277 people with MS underwent venous-echo-Color Doppler (ECD) ultrasound and other examinations. MS was linked to CCSVI. Blocked flow of the internal jugular veins when lying down was linked to EDSS. Further studies are needed. 04-09-2012
201 Endovascular correction of cerebrovenous anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis: A retrospective review of an uncontrolled case series. MD Dake, N Dantzker, WL Bennett, JP Cooke Apr-2012 Full Content Anomalies of the head and neck were found in 40 people with MS. Venous stents were placed in 38. Improvement in hemodynamics was associated with improved symptoms. Serious complications included 1 death and 1 person required open heart surgery. Randomized clinical trials are needed. 04-14-2012
202 Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss and chronic venous cerebrospinal insufficiency: a case report. D Alpini, PM Bavera, F Di Berardino, S Barozzi, A Cesarani Apr-2012 Full Content This case report describes sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) in a person with CCSVI that improved with treatment. This may be cause or coincidence. 04-14-2012
203 Frequent but nonspecific venous narrowing in paediatric multiple sclerosis. E Wuerfel Nee Tysiak, HM Hummel, J Wuerful, J Gartner Apr-2012 Title Only No abstract available. 04-14-2012
205 Extracranial Venous Drainage Patterns in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls RA McTaggart, NJ Fischbein, CJ Elkins, A Hsiao, MJ Cutalo, J Rosenberg, MD Dake, G Zaharchuk Apr-2012 Abstract 20 healthy subjects and 19 people with MS underwent specialized imaging. In a blinded analysis people with MS exhibited greater flattening of their internal jugular veins (IJV) and a trend toward more non-IJV collaterals than healthy subjects. 04-21-2012
206 No association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. M Amato, V Saia, B Hakiki, M Giannini, L Pastò, S Zecchino, S Lori, E Portaccio, M Marinoni Apr-2012 Abstract An ultrasound examination of 15 subjects with pediatric-onset MS (POMS) and 16 healthy controls found CCSVI with comparable frequency in both groups. This points against a causative role for CCSVI in MS. 04-21-2012
207 Assessment of cerebral venous return by a novel plethysmography method. P Zamboni, E Menegatti, P Conforti, S Shepherd, M Tessari, C Beggs Apr-2012 Abstract In a study involving 40 healthy controls (HC) and 44 people with MS, who were further classified as CCSVI + or CCSVI - , blinded assessments of cerebral venous return were performed. The cerebral venous return of people with CCSVI was markedly different from controls. 04-24-2012
208 Diagnostic accuracy of current sonographic criteria for the detection of outflow abnormalities in the internal jugular veins. M Simka, T Ludyga, P Latacz, M Kazibudzki Apr-2012 Full Content The internal jugular veins (IJV) of 58 people with MS were assessed using Doppler sonography and catheter venography. At the current time catheter venography should be used to diagnose vascular pathology. 04-25-2012
209 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and venous stenoses in multiple sclerosis. M Blinkenberg, P Akeson, H Sillesen, S Lovgaard, F Sellebjerg, OB Paulson, HR Siebner, PS Sorenson Apr-2012 Abstract Cervical and cerebral veins were assessed in 24 people with RRMS and 15 healthy controls using Doppler ultrasound and sonography. There was no evidence to support the CCSVI hypothesis. 05-07-2012
210 Fact or fiction: Chronic cerebro-spinal insufficiency C Baracchini, P Gallo Apr-2012 Full Content This article is a critical review of the CCSVI hypothesis, its basis, the diagnostic criteria and relationship to MS. 05-07-2012
212 Autonomic dysfunction: A unifying multiple sclerosis theory, linking chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, vitamin D(3), and Epstein-Barr virus. Z Sternberg Apr-2012 Abstract This review article offers evidence that the observed narrowing in cerebral veins in CCSVI arises from autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Vitamin D(3) and the Epstein-Barr virus are able to alter the functions of the autonomic nervous system. 05-09-2012
181 Evolution in quality of life and epidemiological impact after endovascular treatment of chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. R Beelen, L Maene, P Castenmiller, V Decoene, I Degrieck Mar-2012 Full Content After endovascular treatment of CCSVI in 67 people with MS, physical health significantly improved at 3 and 6 months and mental health at 3 months. Although the baseline was still higher than preoperative, the positive results seemed to lessen over time. 02-15-2012
182 The hypothesis of patho-physiological correlation between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: rationale of treatment. M Lugli, M Morelli, S Guerzoni, O Maleti Mar-2012 Full Content Ultrasound, venography and intravascular ultrasound diagnostic tests for CCSVI do not give comparable results. The pathophysiology of CCSVI is yet to be defined. After venoplasty 67% of 167 people with MS reported subjective relief of non-specific symptoms. 02-15-2012
183 Extra- and transcranial echo colour Doppler in the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. PJ Van den Berg, LH Visser Mar-2012 Full Content With many studies having contradictory results, Echo colour Doppler (ECD) may not be a proper and reliable test to diagnose CCSVI. Different interpretations of CCSVI criteria may explain various results. 02-15-2012
186 Multiple sclerosis: cerebral circulation time M Mancini, VB Morra, O Di Donato, V Maglio, R Lanzillo, R Liuzzi, E Salvatore, A Brunetti, V Iaccarino, M Salvatore Mar-2012 Full Content Cerebral circulation times (CCTs) were measured by Doppler ultrasound (DS) and contrast enhanced DS in 103 people with MS and 42 controls. The longest and average CCTs were substantially prolonged in people with MS compared to controls. The prevalence of CCSVI in people with MS was 77% vs. 28% in controls. 02-24-2012
197 Iron deposition in multiple sclerosis lesions measured by susceptibility-weighted imaging filtered phase: A case control study. J Hagemeier, M Heininen-Brown, GU Poloni, N Bergsland, CR Magnano, J Durfee, C Kennedy, E Carl, B Weinstock-Guttman, MG Dwyer, R Zivadinov Mar-2012 Abstract 95 people with RRMS, 40 with SPMS, 19 with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and 49 healthy controls underwent susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Phase lesions, likely representing high iron content, were present in the earliest disease stages. The role of phase lesions in clinical progression is unclear and requires study. 03-15-2012
198 Ligation of the Jugular Veins Does Not Result in Brain Inflammation or Demyelination in Mice W Atkinson, R Forghani, GR Wojtkiewicz, B Pulli, Y Iwamoto, T Ueno, P Waterman, J Truelove, R Oklu, JW Chen Mar-2012 Full Content After surgically restricting the jugular veins of mice, changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inflammation, demyelination and clinical signs were not found. CCSVI as the cause of MS was not supported in this mouse model. 03-31-2012
227 Venous angioplasty in multiple sclerosis: neurological outcome at two years in a cohort of relapsing-remitting patients F Salvi, I Bartolomei, E Buccellato, R Galeotti, P Zamboni Mar-2012 Full Content In 29 people with RRMS and CCSVI 44 endovascular procedures were performed. The annual relapse rate and EDSS score were significantly lower two years post procedure but both increased in 4 people. Randomized controlled clinical trials are needed. 06-24-2012
179 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency as a Cause of Multiple Sclerosis: Controversy and Reality. CI Diaconu, D Conway, RJ Fox, A Rae-Grant Feb-2012 Abstract In the authors' opinion, the current clinical care standard is to neither evaluate nor treat CCSVI. If CCSVI is pathological in some with MS, vascular intervention will become an area of focus for therapy and monitoring. 02-10-2012
180 A Case of Extrinsic Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in a Patient with Multiple Sclerosis D Radak, S Tanaskovic, D Sagic, Z Antonic, J Kolar Feb-2012 Abstract The authors describe a rare case of CCSVI due to vein obstruction and compression by cervical vertebra. 02-11-2012
184 Internal jugular vein valve morphology in the patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI); angiographic findings and schematic demonstrations. MH Al-Omari, A Al-Bashir Feb-2012 Abstract Most of the abnormalities found in the internal jugular vein (IJV) are at the level of the jugular valve. Diagrams of the most common anomalies in the lower part of the IJV are presented. 02-19-2012
185 The Role of Venous Abnormalities in Neurological Disease. EM Haacke, CB Beggs, C Habib Feb-2012 Abstract Research has minimized the role of venous circulation. There is evidence to suggest venous anomalies may be key in several neurological diseases, including MS. A link between CCSVI and MS is reviewed. 02-19-2012
187 Neck duplex Doppler ultrasound evaluation for assessing chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients M Zaniewski, J Kostecki, W Kuczmik, D Ziaja, G Opala, M Swiat, T Korzeniowski, E Majewski, T Urbanek, K Pawlicki Feb-2012 Full Content Doppler ultrasound examination of 181 people with MS and 50 healthy controls found pathological changes in the extracranial jugular veins in 148 people with MS (82%) and 7 (14%) of controls. A correlation between inverted flow in patients in the sitting position and chronic progressive MS was found. 02-24-2012
188 Quantitative flow measurements in the internal jugular veins of multiple sclerosis patients using magnetic resonance imaging W Feng, D Utriainen, G Trifan, S Sethi, D Hubbard, EM Haacke Feb-2012 Abstract 200 people with MS and 14 normal volunteers were evaluated with 3T MRI to study blood flow through the internal jugular veins (IJVs). Blood flow in the IJVs of the MS population with stenoses was reduced compared to those without. 02-24-2012
189 Possible pathomechanisms responsible for injury to the cental nervous system in the settings of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Simka, M Feb-2012 Abstract This review considers interpretations of some of the pathology of CNS injury within the context of CCSVI. 02-24-2012
193 White matter and deep gray matter hemodynamic changes in multiple sclerosis patients with clinically isolated syndrome. EZ Papadaki, VC Mastorodemos, EZ Amanakis, KC Tsekouras, AE Papadakis, ND Tsavalas, PG Simos, AH Karantanas, A Plaitakis, TG Maris Feb-2012 Abstract This study of 30 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 30 people with RRMS, and 30 normal controls found strong evidence that hemodynamic changes affecting both white and deep gray matter may occur at the earliest stages of MS. 03-02-2012
196 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: A note for caution R Bhatia, Abhishek, K Prasad Feb-2012 Full Content This point of view article notes the rationale of iron deposition and MS causation remains hypothetical. More research and clinical trials are required. 03-15-2012
245 Observations of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using A Multimodality Imaging Protocol RF Neville, C Tornatore, J Laredo, BB Lee, AN Sidawy Feb-2012 Full Content Screening for CCSVI using ultrasound found 57% of 100 people with MS were positive for CCSVI. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was critical in differentiating true abnormalities from venous valvular phenomena. 09-02-2012
158 Prevalence study of chromic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis R Floris, D Centonze, S Fabiano, M Stefanini, S Marziali, C Del Giudice, CA Reale, M Castelli, F Garaci, M Mellis, R Gandini, D Simonetti Jan-2012 Abstract In an ultrasonography study of 40 people with MS and 34 healthy controls CCSVI was detected in 55% of people with MS and 35% of controls. A larger sample is needed to achieve statistically significant results. 01-17-2012
159 Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Structural Venous Abnormalities on MR Imaging Exhibit an Abnormal Flow Distribution of the Internal Jugular Veins EM Haacke, W Feng, D Utriainen, G Trifan, Z Wu, Z Latif, Y Katkuri, J Hewett, D Hubbard Jan-2012 Abstract Of the 200 people with MS studied by MR imaging, 68% (136) showed internal jugular vein (IJV) structural abnormalities, which included unilateral or bilateral stenoses. People with stenosis carried significantly less flow in the IJVs. MR imaging can noninvasively separate stenotic and non-stenotic MS cases. 01-17-2012
162 Review of CCSVI and MS for EJVES M Mehta Jan-2012 Full Content The evolution of diagnostic and treatment methods for people with MS and CCSVI will need to include multi-disciplinary collaborative efforts. 01-17-2012
163 Regarding CCSVI and MS: A Never-ending story or a New Chapter? R Zivadinov, F Salvi, B Weinstock-Guttman Jan-2012 Full Content The authors respond to commentary by Dr. Reekers about MS and CCSVI. 01-17-2012
164 Regarding CCSVI: Is Blinding the Key? P Zamboni, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Jan-2012 Full Content The authors note that the MRI analysis of the CCSVI study at the Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (BNAC) was fully blinded. 01-17-2012
165 Multiple sclerosis: a chronic infective cerebrospinal venulitis? PK Thibault Jan-2012 Full Content The author hypothesizes that the venous pathology associated with CCSVI could be initiated by a respiratory infective agent, Chlamydophila pneumonia. 01-17-2012
156 Intra-and Extraluminal Structural and Functional Venous Anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis, as Evidenced by 2 Noninvasive Imaging Techniques K Dolic, K Marr, V Valnarov, MG Dwyer, E Carl, Y Karmon, C Kennedy, C Brooks, C Kilanowski, K Hunt, AH Siddiqui, D Hojnacki, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Dec-2011 Full Content In a study of 150 people with MS and 63 healthy controls (HC), doppler sonography found people with MS had a significantly higher number of functional and intraluminal structural abnormalities than HCs. People with progressive MS had more IJV extraluminal abnormalities. MRV was more sensitive in identifying collaterals. 01-17-2012
157 Non-specific alterations of craniocervical venous drainage in multiple sclerosis revealed by cardiac-gated phase-contrast MRI B Ertl-Wagner, I Koerte, T Kuempfel, A Blaschek, RP Laubender, M Schick, D Steffinger, D Kaufmann, F Heinen, M Reiser, N Alperin, R Hohlfeld Dec-2011 Abstract This study of 27 people with MS and 27 healthy controls (HC), also compared to people with migraines, found people with MS had significantly more secondary venous drainage than HCs. Cerebral venous drainage appeared to be similar to people with chronic migraines. The authors suggest this is secondary and not primary in the pathology of the disorders. 01-17-2012
160 Screening for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) using ultrasound--Recommendations for a protocol P Zamboni, S Morovic, E Menegatti, G Viselner, AN Nicolaides Dec-2011 Abstract The variability in reported prevalence of CCSVI could be the result of differences in technique, training, experience or criteria used. A detailed protocol with standard methodology and criteria is proposed to ensure comparable accuracy among researchers. 01-17-2012
190 Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 multiple sclerosis patients M Simka, P Latacz, T Ludyga, M Kazibudzki, M Swierad, P Janas, J Piegza Dec-2011 Full Content 96.1% of 568 MS patients had venous abnormalities. Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins, 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. The clinical relevance of the data needs to be established. 03-02-2012
191 Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis: a phase contrast magnetic resonance study Y Gorucu, S Albayram, B Balci, ZI Hasiloglu, K Yenigul, F Yargic, Z Keser, F Kantarci, A Kiris Dec-2011 Full Content Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics of 40 people with MS and 40 healthy controls studied with phase contrast (PC- MRI) may or may not support the venous occlusion theory. 03-02-2012
192 Screening for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) using ultrasound. Recommendations for a protocol AN Nicolaides, S Morovic, E Menegatti, G Viselner, P Zamboni Dec-2011 Full Content Doppler ultrasound has produced variable results in identifying CCSVI. A standard protocol is presented to guide further research. 03-02-2012
194 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a historical perspective MD Dake, R Zivadinov, EM Haacke Dec-2011 Abstract This review provides background to understand the development of the theory of CCSVI and to frame relevant issues regarding its diagnosis and relationship to the pathology of MS. 03-02-2012
195 Sensitivity and specificity for screening of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency using a multimodal non-invasive imaging approach in patients with multiple sclerosis K Dolic, K Marr, V Valnarov, MG Dwyer, E Carl, J Hagemeier, C Kennedy, C Brooks, C Kilanowski, K Hunt, D Hojnacki, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Dec-2011 Full Content Using a multimodal approach of Doppler sonography (DS) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV), 2 or more venous hemodynamic CCSVI criteria were found in 64.3% (110) people with MS and in 38% (30) healthy controls. This multimodal non-invasive approach may increase the specificity of a CCSVI diagnosis in people with MS. 03-02-2012
239 No Endovascular Intervention Without Evaluation in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency A Call for the IDEAL Model MA Williams, A Venkatesan Dec-2011 Abstract The authors suggest that the IDEAL model: (1) innovation, (2a) development, (2b) exploration, (3) assessment, and (4) long-term implementation and monitoring offers a suitable framework for pursuing CCSVI clinical research. 07-24-2012
400 Does thoracic pump influence the cerebral venous return? P Zamboni, E Menegatti, L Pomidori, S Morovic, A Taibi, AM Malagoni, AL Cogo, M Gambaccini Dec-2011 Full Content This study found that the thoracic pump influenced cerebral venous return. Active respiration further significantly increased all hemodynamic parameters of the IJVs. 03-18-2014
149 Positional Venous MR Angiography: An Operator-Independent Tool to Evaluate Cerebral Venous Outflow Hemodynamics P Niggemann, M Seifert, A Forg, HH Schild, H Urbach, T Krings Nov-2011 Full Content Using the Fonar Upright MR imaging system in 15 healthy volunteers, IJV strictures were commonly found in the supine position. Positional MR imaging may help to clarify the CCSVI criteria. 01-17-2012
151 Safety of endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a report of 240 patients with multiple sclerosis. KD Mandato, PF Hegener, GP Siskin, ZJ Haskal, MJ Englander, S Garla, N Mitchell, L Reutzel, C Doti Nov-2011 Abstract Endovascular treatment of 240 people with CCSVI was found to be a safe procedure; in the 30 day period following treatment there was a risk of 1.6 % for major complications. 01-17-2012
152 Risk Factors for Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) in a Large Cohort of Volunteers K Dolic, B Weinstock-Guttman, K Marr, V Valnorov, E Carl, J Hagemeier, C Brooks, C Kilanowski, D Hojnacki, M Ramanthan, R Zivadinov Nov-2011 Full Content Data from 252 volunteers without MS found 27.8% had CCSVI. Heart disease (especially murmurs), a history of infectious mononucleosis and irritable bowel syndrome were associated with CCSVI. Use of dietary supplements trended toward less frequent CCSVI diagnosis. 01-17-2012
153 Assessing Abnormal Iron Content in the Deep Gray Matter of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis versus Healthy Controls CA Habib, M Liu, N Bawany, J Garbern, I Krumbein, HJ Mentzel, J Reichenback, C Magnano, R Zivadinov, EM Haacke Nov-2011 Full Content Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) was utilized to assess iron content in the gray matter of 52 people with MS and 122 healthy controls. In people younger than 40, 1% of controls and 67% of people with RRMS had abnormally high iron content. 01-17-2012
178 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: does ultrasound really distinguish multiple sclerosis subjects from healthy controls? F Kantarci, S Albayram, NO Demirci, A Esenkaya, D Uluduz, O Uysal, S Saip, A Siva Nov-2011 Abstract A Doppler ultrasound study of 62 people with MS and 54 control subjects found Doppler ultrasound may not be clinically reliable for identifying CCSVI. Variations in vertebral vein flow in people with MS were found. 01-24-2012
280 Pathogenic implications of iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis R Williams, CL Buchheit, NEJ Berman, SM Levine Nov-2011 Full Content Iron accumulates abnormally in the CNS of people with MS. This article reviews mechanisms of iron uptake and its likely roles in MS pathology. 12-28-2012
119 Extra-cranial venous flow in patients with multiple sclerosis E Auriel, A Karni, NM Bornstein, T Nissel, A Gadoth, H Hallevi Oct-2011 Abstract Doppler examination was used to assess abnormal venous flow in 27 people with MS and 32 healthy controls. The researchers found no evidence that people with MS have an excess of CCSVI. 01-12-2012
132 Association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis A Laupacis, E Lillie, A Dueck, S Straus, L Perrier, JM Burton, R Aviv, K Thorpe, T Feasby, J Spears Oct-2011 Full Content This meta-analysis found a positive association between CCSVI and MS despite concerns about differences among studies and blinding. 01-12-2012
133 CCSVI and MS: A Never Ending Story JA Reekers Oct-2011 Title Only No abstract available. 01-12-2012
135 Review of Venous Anatomy for Venographic Interpretation in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency JD Werner, GP Siskin, K Mandato, M Englander, A Herr Oct-2011 Abstract A review of the normal anatomy of the internal jugular, vertebral and azygos veins to aid in interpreting venograms when evaluating for CCSVI. 12-29-2011
136 Determinants of brain iron in multiple sclerosis: A quantitative 3T MRI study M Khalil, C Langkammer, S Ropele, K Petrovic, M Wallner-Blazek, M Loitfelder, M Jehna, G Bachmaier, R Schmidt, C Enzinger, S Fuchs, F Fazekas Oct-2011 Abstract Iron accumulation in the basal ganglia of people with MS occurred with advancing disease. It was not present in people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), suggesting iron accumulation does not precede the development of MS. 01-12-2012
145 Venous drainage in multiple sclerosis: A combined MRI and ultrasound study F Doepp, JT Wurfel, CF Pfueller, JM Valdueza, D Petersen, F Paul, SJ Schreiber Oct-2011 Abstract This study of 40 people with MS suggests MRV is more sensitive than Doppler sonography in evaluating IJV narrowing. With MRV, 30%(12) displayed narrowing of 0-50%; 48% (19) narrowing of 51-80%; and 22%(9) narrowing >80%. The authors state a measurable hemodynamic effect is seen only if the narrowing is >80%. 01-17-2012
146 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical Correlates from a Multicentre Study S. Bastianello, A Romani, G Viselner, EC Tibaldi, E Giugni, M Altieri, P Ceccoui, L Mendozzi, M Farina, D Marianna, A Galassi, C Quattrini, M Mancini, V Bresciamorra, A Lagace, S McDonald, G Bono, R Bergamaschi Oct-2011 Full Content Overall CCSVI was found in 86% of 710 people with MS but the frequency varied between the 6 centres. Age at disease onset and clinical severity were linked to CCSVI. People with progressive MS were more likely to have CCSVI than people with RRMS. 01-17-2012
147 Systematic review of sonographic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency findings in multiple sclerosis A Thapar, T Lane, R Nicholas, T Friede, M Ellis, J Assenheim IJ Franklin, AH Davies Oct-2011 Full Content This review of 4 cross sectional studies notes the substantial variation in the strength of association between CCSVI and MS. Trained sonographers and consensus on individual criteria for CCSVI are needed. 01-17-2012
148 Decreased brain venous vascular visibility of susceptibility-weighted imaging venography in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency R Zivadinov, GU Poloni, K Marr, CV Schirda, CR Magnano, E Carl, N Bergsland, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, CB Beggs, MG Dwyer, B Weinstock-Guttman Oct-2011 Full Content This study of 59 people with MS found 79.7% met CCSVI criteria as did 18.2% of 33 healthy controls. People with MS with a higher number of venous stenoses showed signficantly decreased venous vasculature in the brain parenchyma. This may indicate reduced metabolism and morphological changes in venous vasculature. 01-17-2012
150 Internal jugular vein duplication: a further truncular malformation in a patient with multiple sclerosis D Radak, S Tanaskovic, S Marinkovic, Z Antonic, J Kolar Oct-2011 Full Content Internal jugular vein duplication, a very rare phenomenon, was found in a 55 year old woman being treated for MS. 01-17-2012
155 Endovascular Treatment of Patients with Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis N Kipshidze, I Rukhadze, A Archvadze, V Kipiani, N Kipshidze, E Lapiashivili, V Kaloiani Oct-2011 Abstract Endovascular treatment of four people with CCSVI and MS demonstrated positive remission of the disease. A case of MRI improvement was documented. 01-17-2012
120 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A Critical Review C Zecca, C Gobbi Sep-2011 Abstract The authors critically summarize available evidence on CCSVI and conclude there is insufficient data to establish a clear relationship between CCSVI and MS. Treatment of CCSVI is discouraged. 01-12-2012
124 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: diagnostic, pathogenetic, clinical and treatment perspectives R Zivadinov, M Ramanathan, K Dolic, K Marr, Y Karmon, AH Siddiqui, RH Benedict, B Weinstock-Guttman Sep-2011 Abstract The authors review suggests there's an urgent need to validate the spectrum of cranial/extracranial venous anomalies and to establish diagnostic gold standard test(s). 12-29-2011
126 Current thoughts on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis LC Flynn, ML Moster Sep-2011 Abstract The authors propose further research to determine what role, if any, venous insufficiency plays in MS and to determine the most appropriate treatment. 12-29-2011
127 Complications in MS Patients After CCSVI Treatment Abroad (Calgary, AB) JM Burton, K Alikhani, M Goyal, F Costello, C White, D Patry, R Bell, MD Hill Sep-2011 Full Content The authors undertook a chart and patient review of 5 people who came to their medical attention with various complications after treatment for CCSVI. 12-29-2011
129 Morphological and haemodynamic abnormalities in the jugular veins of patients with multiple sclerosis D Radak, J Kolar, S Tanaskovic, D Sagic, Z Antonic, A Mitrasinovic, S Babic, D Nenezic, N Ilijevski Sep-2011 Full Content In a study of 64 people with MS and 37 healthy controls people with MS had significantly more internal jugular vein (IJV) morphological changes and haemodynamic abnormalities than healthy controls. 01-12-2012
130 Quantitative Colour Doppler Sonography Evaluation of Cerebral Venous Outflow: A Comparitive Study between Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Controls L Monti, E Menci, M Ulivelli, A Cerase, S Bartalini, P Piu, N Marotti, S Leonini, P Galluzzi, DG Romano, AE Casasco, C Venturi Sep-2011 Full Content This Doppler study of cerebral venous outflow (CVF) of 27 healthy adults and 52 people with MS found significant hemodynamic differences. People with MS had increased venous return in the seated position and it seems to be a pathological condition. 01-12-2012
131 A physics link between venous stenosis and multiple sclerosis TW Tucker Sep-2011 Abstract Incorporating the perspective of the physics of fluid dynamics, this hypothesis examines the impact on the brain of venous stenosis of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). 12-29-2011
134 CCSVI: Is Blinding the Key? CA Mayer, U Ziemann Sep-2011 Title Only No abstract available. 12-29-2011
144 Venous extracranial Duplex ultrasound and possible correlations between multiple sclerosis and CCSVI: an observational study after 560 exams PM Bavera, L Mendozzi, R Cavarretta, GB Agus Aug-2011 Abstract This observational study of 560 patients with MS found a significant number of people had venous outflow problems. 01-16-2012
121 Venous Angioplasty in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Results of a Pilot Study P Zamboni, R Galeotti, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Kennedy, F Salvi, R Zivadinov Aug-2011 Abstract 15 patients with RRMS treated with angioplasty (early and delayed) demonstrated significant improvement in functonal scores compared to baseline. Re-stenosis rate was 27%. Safety of angioplasty was confirmed. 12-26-2011
122 Extracranial venous hemodynamics in multiple sclerosis: a case control study G Tsivgoulis, M Mantatzis, C Bogiatzi, K Vadikolias, K Voumvourakis, P Prassopoulos, C Piperidou, I Heliopoulos Aug-2011 Abstract 43 people with MS and 42 controls were evaluated by Doppler. There was no evidence of stenosis or nondetectable Doppler flow in cervical veins in patients or controls. The data argue against CCSVI as a mechanism in MS. 01-12-2012
123 Progressive multiple sclerosis is not associated with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency C Baracchini, P Perini, F Causin, M Calabrese, F Rinaldi, P Gallo Aug-2011 Abstract Doppler examination of 35 people with SPMS, 25 with PPMS and 60 healthy controls found no CCSVI in controls and 6.7% in people with progressive MS. Authors conclude CCSVI is not a late secondary phenomenon of MS and is not associated with disability. 12-26-2011
128 No Cerebral or Cervical Venous Insufficiency in US Veterans with Multiple Sclerosis E Marder, P Gupta, BM Greenbarg, EM Frohman, AM Awad, B Bagert, O Stuve Aug-2011 Abstract This study found no significant difference in the number and type of venous outflow abnormalities in people with MS compared to controls. The study does not support the theory that CCSVI exists in MS. 01-03-2012
176 Assessment of the cerebral venous system from the transcondylar ultrasound window using virtual navigator technology and MRI MM Lagana, L Forzoni, S Viotti, S De Beni, G Baselli, P Cecconi Aug-2011 Abstract A new ultrasound procedure was preliminarily tested on 10 volunteers. This approach allowed them to assess what deep cerebral veins (intra-cranial veins) were visible and their position relative to surrounding brain tissue. 01-20-2012
90 Proposed CCSVI criteria do not predict MS risk nor MS severity D Centonze, R Floris, M Stefanini, S Rossi, S Fabiano, M Castelli, S Marziali, A Spinelli, C Motta, FG Garaci, G Bernardi, G Simonetti Jul-2011 Abstract The authors found no significant differences in CCSVI frequency between 84 MS subjects and 56 control subjects. Furthermore, no differences were found between CCSVI-positive and CCSVI-negative patients in terms of disease duration, time between onset and first relapse, relapsing or progressive disease course, or risk of secondary progression course. The authors conclude CCSVI does not have a role in MS risk nor severity. 01-11-2012
106 Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis M D'haeseleer, M Cambron, L Vanopdenbosch, J DeKeyser Jul-2011 Abstract The authors identify 3 types of vascular dysfunction in people with MS: 1) higher risk for ischaemic stroke; 2) global cerebral hypoperfusion; and, 3) MS pathology that may be the consequence of a chronic state of impaired drainage from the CNS (aka CCSVI) 01-11-2012
110 Multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a critical review AM Awad, E Mardu, R Milo, O Stuve Jul-2011 Full Content This review summarizes available evidence and provides a critical analyis of published data. There is inconclusive evidence to support CCSVI as an etiological factor in people with MS. Endovascular procedures should not be undertaken outside of controlled clinical trials. 01-11-2012
111 Comparison of MR and Contrast Venography of the Cervical Venous System in Multiple Sclerosis G Zaharchuk, NJ Fischbein, J Rosenberg, RJ Herfkens, MD Dake Jul-2011 Full Content Both MRV and CV frequently showed venous abnormalities. MRV may need to be improved before it can be used for screening for CCSVI. 01-11-2012
112 Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting? A Waschbisch, A Manzel, RA Linker, De-Hyung Lee Jul-2011 Full Content The authors suggest the investigation of vascular concepts in MS seems very worthwhile 01-11-2012
113 MRI assessment of iron deposition in multiple sclerosis S Ropele, W de Graaf, M Khalil, MP Wattjes, C Langkammer, MA Rocca, A Rovira, J Palace, F Barkhof, M Filippi, F Fazekas Jul-2011 Abstract The exact mechanism of iron deposition in MS brain tissue and its pathological and clinical significance is largely unknown. Reliable methods to exactly quantify brain iron are needed. 12-26-2011
114 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis Patients G Siskin, K Mandato, M Englander Jul-2011 Full Content The authors describe what the existing data tell us about a potential association between CCSVI and MS symptoms. 12-26-2011
115 CCSVI: What We Need to Know Now and in the Future MD Dake Jul-2011 Full Content The author advocates multidisciplinary collaboration as a necessary step toward answering questions about the relationship between MS and extracranial venous obstruction. 12-26-2011
116 Vascular Dysfunction and Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis SM Ranadive, H Yan, M Weikert, AD Lane, MA Linden, T Baynard, RW Motl, B Fernhall Jul-2011 Abstract The authors found resting forearm blood flow was lower in people with MS than controls and attribute this to lower physical activity. 12-26-2011
117 Internal jugular thrombosis post venoplasty for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Imperial College CCSVI Investigation Group: A Thapar, TR Lane, V Pandev, J Shalhoub, O Malik, M Ellis, IJ Franklin, R Nicholas, AH Davies Jul-2011 Full Content The authors present a case report of jugular thrombosis following venoplasty that required surgical intervention for symptom relief. 12-26-2011
118 Endovascular therapy for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis MA Lazzaro, OO Zaidat, N Mueller-Kronast, MA Taqi, D Woo Jul-2011 Full Content This review describes the proposed association between CCSVI and MS, summarizes the current data, and discusses the role of endovascular therapy. Rigorous randomized clinical trials are needed. 12-26-2011
167 Letter to Editor Reply C Baracchini, P Perini, F Causin, M Calabrese, F Rinaldi, P Gallo Jul-2011 Title Only No abstract available 01-17-2012
168 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis G Avruscio Jul-2011 Title Only No abstract available 01-17-2012
103 Iron Deposition and inflammation in multiple sclerosis: Which one comes first? R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman, I Pirko Jun-2011 Full Content The relative contribution of iron deposition vs inflammation in the pathogenesis of MS is unknown. Further studies to establish the association between inflammation, reduced blood flow, iron deposition, microglia activation and neurodegeneration are needed. 01-11-2012
104 Iron Deposition is independent of cellular inflammation in a cerebral model of multiple sclerosis R Williams, AM Rohr, WT Wang, IY Choi, P Lee, NEJ Berman, SG Lynch, SM Levine Jun-2011 Full Content The findings indicate that iron deposition around vessels can occur independently of inflammation, providing evidence against the hypothesis that iron deposits account for inflammatory cell infiltrates observed in MS. 01-12-2012
105 Safety profile of endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis I Petrov, L Grozdinski, G Kaninski, N IIiev, M Iloska, A Radev, Jun-2011 Abstract In a study of 461 people with MS the authors found endovascular therapy appeared to be a safe and reliable method for treating CCSVI. 12-26-2011
107 Evaluation of blood flow and the cross-sectional area of the internal jugular vein in Japanese multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica patients M Tanaka, H Uchizumi, K Tanaka Jun-2011 Abstract In a Doppler study of 17 patients with MS and 11 with NMO no obstruction or stenosis of the internal jugular vein was found. The data do not support the hypothesis of CCSVI. 12-29-2011
108 Commentary: Safety of endovascular treatment for CCSVI and future perspectives M Simka Jun-2011 Title Only No abstract available. 12-29-2011
109 The internet racing ahead of the scientific evidence: the case of liberation treatment for multiple sclerosis YD Fragoso Jun-2011 Full Content CCSVI remains controversial and the enthusiasm on the internet does not yet match the scientific evidence as there have been no clinical trials. 01-11-2012
166 Comment on 'no evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency at onset of multiple sclerosis' R Zivadinov, M Ramanathan, MG Dwyer, K Marr, RH Benedict, B Weinstock-Guttman Jun-2011 Title Only No abstract available 01-17-2012
93 Vascular function and multiple sclerosis AS Fjeldstad, J McDaniel, MA Witman, SJ Ives, J Zhao, JW Rose, J Hannon, DW Wray, RS Richardson May-2011 Abstract This study of 14 people with RRMS and 13 controls found impaired vascular function, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress "are not an obligatory accompaniment to MS". 12-26-2011
95 Development of a Research Agenda for Evaluation of Interventional Therapies for Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: Proceedings from A Multi-Disciplinary Research Consensus Panel GP Siskin, ZJ Haskal, G McLennan, MD Dake, EM Haacke, S McDonald, W Royal, S Vedanthan, D Hubbard, SJ Sclafani, RT Andrews, H Sauder May-2011 Full Content The committee consensus is that the mechanisms for evaluating people with MS for jugular and azygous venous compromise and the value of treating these lesions with angioplasty warrant careful, well designed additional study. 12-26-2011
89 Prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in MS R Zivadinov, K Marr, G Cutter, M Ramanathan, RH Benedict, C Kennedy, M Elfadil, AE Yeh, J Reuther, C Brooks, K Hunt, M Andrews, E Carl, MG Dwyer, D Hojnacki, B Weinstock-Guttman Apr-2011 Abstract CCSVI prevalence with borderline cases included in the "no CCSVI" group was 56.1% in MS, 42.3% in other neurlogical diseases (OND), 38.1% in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and 22.7% in healthy controls (HC). When borderline bases were excluded, the CCSVI prevalence figures were 62.5% for MS, 45.8% for OND, 42.1% for CIS, and 25.5% for HC. Data suggest CCSVI does not have a primary causative role in MS. 01-12-2012
91 Value of MR Venography for Detection of Internal Jugular Vein Anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Longitudinal Study R Zivadinov , R Galeotti , D Hojnacki, E Menegatti , MG Dwyer, C Schirda , AM Malagoni , K Marr , C Kennedy , I Bartolomei , C Magnano , F Salvi , B Weinstock-Guttman , P Zamboni P Apr-2011 Full Content Ten people with MS and 6 healthy controls underwent several diagnostic tests for CCSVI. The authors conclude conventional MRV has limited value for assessing internal jugular vein (IJV) anomalies for both diagnostic and post treatment purposes 12-26-2011
92 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency MP Wattjes, F Doepp, M Bendszus, J Fiehler Apr-2011 Abstract Review article (in German) discussing CCSVI within the context of MS pathology. The authors believe there is conclusive data that the theory of CCSVI is wrong, and question whether venous anomalies should be treated. 01-11-2012
96 Anatomical stenosis of the internal jugular veins: supportive evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency? A Baiocchini, R Roscano, W von Lorch, F Del Nonno Apr-2011 Full Content Stenosis of the internal jugular veins (IJV) with impaired venous drainage from the central nervous system was identified in 2 people with MS who died from other causes. 01-11-2012
88 Hypoperfusion of brain parenchyma is associated with the severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional preliminary report P Zamboni, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, MG Dwyer, CV Schirda, AM Malagoni, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, N Bergsland, C Magnano, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, R Zivadinov Mar-2011 Full Content This preliminary study investigated the relationship of CCSVI and cerebral hypoperfusion in 16 people with MS and CCSVI and 8 healthy controls. They report a significant relationship between the severity of CCSVI and hypoperfusion. Reduced perfusion could contribute to the known mechanisms of hypoxia in degenerated axons. 01-11-2012
99 Jugular venous reflux and neurological disorders HY Hsu Mar-2011 Title Only No abstract available. 01-11-2012
100 Jugular venous reflux could influence cerebral blood flow: a transcranial Doppler study IH Wu, WY Sheng, HH Hu, CP Chung Mar-2011 Abstract Transcranial doppler was used to examine changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during Valsava Maneuver (VM). Evidence was found that right IJV reflux influenced CBF. 12-26-2011
101 More severe white matter changes in the elderly with jugular venous relux CP Chung, PN Wang, YH Wu, YC Tsao, WY Sheng, KN Lin, SJ Lin, HH Hu Mar-2011 Abstract In 97 people with a mean age of 75, people with severe jugular venous reflux exhibited more severe age-related white matter changes. These findings offer clues into the pathophysiology of age-related white matter changes 01-11-2012
283 Magnetic Resonance Venography of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with associated multiple sclerosis M Hartel, E Kluczewska, M Simka, T Ludyga, J Kostecki, M Zaniewski Mar-2011 Full Content Magnetic resonance venography of 830 people with MS identified slower blood flow in the internal jugular veins, mostly on the left side. 01-16-2013
79 Cardiovascular and interventional radiological society of europe commentary on the treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency JA Reekers, MJ Lee, AM Belli, F Barkhof Feb-2011 Full Content CIRSE believes there is currently no sound basis for performing balloon dilatation, with or without stenting, for CCSVI. 01-12-2012
81 The perfect crime? CCSVI not leaving a trace in MS CA Mayer, W Pfeilschifter, MW Lorenz, M Nedelmann, I Bechmann, H Steinmetz, U Ziemann Feb-2011 Full Content This assessment (blinded) of extra- and intracranial venous flow direction of the internal jugular and vertebral veins utilizing colour-coded duplex sonography in 20 people with MS and 20 healthy controls does not support the presence of CCSVI in people with MS. 01-12-2012
82 Ultra-high-field imaging distinguishes MS lesions from aymptomatic white matter lesions EC Tallantyre, JE Dixon, I Donaldson, T Owens, PS Morgan, PG Morris, N Evangelou Feb-2011 Full Content This observational study of 28 people with MS and 17 people with cerebral white matter lesions but not MS, found that perivenous lesion location predicted the presence of demyelination. 12-26-2011
83 Iron and Neurodegeneration in Multiple in Multiple Sclerosis M Khalil, C Teunissen, C Langkammer Feb-2011 Full Content This article reviews previous research regarding increased iron deposition in the brains of people with MS and notes that the presence of iron and its role in the pathology of MS is still uncertain. 12-26-2011
84 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency is Not Associated with HLA DRB1* 1501 Status in Multiple Sclerosis Patients B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov, G Cutter, M Tamano-Blanco, K Marr, D Badgett, E Carl, M Elfadil, C Kennedy, R H.B. Benedict, M Ramanathan Feb-2011 Full Content This study evaluated the HLA DRB1*1501 (genetics) status in 268 MS patients and 155 controls and found the presence of CCSVI was independent of HLA DRB1* 1501 status in MS patients. 01-12-2012
76 Intracranial venous pressure is normal in patients with multiple sclerosis R Meyer-Schwickerath, C Haug, A Hacker, F Fink, D Seidel, HP Hartung, MR Haupts Jan-2011 Abstract Intracranial venous pressure assessed in 29 MS patients, 28 healthy controls, and 19 cases with elevated intracranial pressure found no evidence of increased intracranial venous pressure in MS patients. 01-12-2012
78 Chronic cerebral spinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis EM Haacke Jan-2011 Full Content Varied evidence that the venous system is associated with MS is presented and a suggestion offered to focus on 'vascular immunology' in the study of neurodegenerative diseases. 12-26-2011
80 No evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency at multiple sclerosis onset C Baracchini, P Perini, M Calabrese, F Causin, F Rinaldi, P Gallo Jan-2011 Abstract Utilizing primarily extracranial and transcranial venous echo-color Doppler sonography as the diagnostic tool no support for a cause-effect relationship between CCSVI and MS was found in this study of 50 people with possible MS (CIS). 12-26-2011
85 Risk of venous thromboembolism in people admitted to hospital with selected immune-mediated diseases: record-linkage study SV Ramagopalan, CJ Wotton, AE Handel, D Yeates, MJ Goldacre Jan-2011 Full Content In a study of the records of people hospitalized in England the authors found those with immune-mediated diseases (including those with MS) had a significantly elevated risk of venous blood clots. Prior to any procedures steps may be taken to try to prevent these. 01-11-2012
169 Face, brain, and veins: a new perspective for multiple sclerosis onset P Zamboni, F Carinci Jan-2011 Title Only No abstract available 01-17-2012
72 Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis A Ghezzi, G Comi, A Federico Dec-2010 Abstract Literature data in favour and against the CCSVI hypothesis are discussed.A great variability of CCSVI has been found in both MS patients and in control subjects. This large variability is explained by methodological aspects, problems in assessing CCSVI, and differences among clinical series. 01-12-2012
73 Endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficency: is the procedure safe? T Ludyga, M Kazibudzki, M Simka, M Hartel, M Swierad, J Piegza, P Latacz, L Sedlak, M Tochowicz. Dec-2010 Full Content The authors report on 344 interventions in 331 CCSVI patients with associated multiple sclerosis. The procedures appear to be safe and well tolerated. Long term data on the effects of angioplasty on the course of MS have not been completed. 12-26-2011
74 The chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency syndrome P Zamboni, R Galeotti Dec-2010 Full Content A comprehensive overview of the status of the art of diagnosis and treatment of CCSVI. Venous stenosis in pwMS are most likely related to truncular venous malformations; mostly intraluminal defects like malformed valves and webs. Endovascular treatment is well tolerated by patients and creates a significant post-operative change in venous pressure. Re-stenosis remains elevated in IJV but neglible in the AZ. 01-12-2012
75 Use of MR Venography for Characterization of the Extracranial Venous System in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Subjects R. Zivadinov, A Lopez-Soriano, B Weinstock-Guttman, CV Schirda, CR Magnano, K Dolic, CL Kennedy, CL Brooks, JA Reuther, K Hunt, M Andrews, MG Dwyer, DW Hojnacki Dec-2010 Full Content Using MR venography, this study detected no significant differences in the extracranial venous systems between MS patients and healthy controls. Standardized guidelines are needed to define parameters for the presence of venous anomalies. 01-12-2012
87 The Role of MR Imaging in the Diagnosis of CCSVI and in Pre-Treatment Planning and Monitoring Patient Outcomes EM Haacke Dec-2010 Full Content Pre and post procedure imaging for CCSVI will facilitate the creation of data to better understand the role of the vascular system in MS and other neurological diseases. 01-11-2012
97 Internal jugular vein valves: an assessment of prevalence, morphology and competence by color Doppler echography in 240 healthy subjects D Valecchi, D Bacci, M Gulisano, E Sgambati, M Sibilio, M Lipomas, C Macchi Dec-2010 Abstract The authors confirmed the anatomic variability of internal jugular vein valves and urge studies to determine whether they play an important role in preventing reflux towards the brain 01-11-2012
102 CCSVI as the Cause of Multiple Sclerosis: The Science Behind the Controversial Theory MA Rhodes Dec-2010 Abstract This book includes a history of MS, an explanation of autotimmunity, and examines recent research relating to the theory of CCSVI and MS and how the venous model compares to the standard model of the disease. Practical ideas for pursuing evaluation and possible treatment are also included. 01-11-2012
125 An endovascular treatment of Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis patients--6 month follow-up results J Kostecki, M Zaniewski, K Ziaja, T Urbanek, W Kuczmik, E Krzystanek, D Ziaja, T Korzeniowski, E Majewski, M Hartel, M Swiat, U Sioma-Markowska Dec-2010 Abstract 36 patients with MS and CCSVI underwent endovascular treatment. 6 month follow up indicated improvement in fatigue and heat intolerance but no influence on neurological condition. 01-12-2012
170 Regarding No Cerebral Venous Congestion in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, Intraluminal Jugular Septation P Zamboni Dec-2010 Title Only No abstract available 01-17-2012
66 The controversy of CCSVI and iron in multiple sclerosis: Is ferritin the key? SJ Van Rensburg, R Van Toorn Nov-2010 Abstract CCSVI has been suggested to be a possible cause of MS, however, this study reported that while CSF ferritin levels were pathologically raised in patients with superficial siderosis and subarachnoid hemorrhage, a significantly lower number of patients with MS were affected by high ferritin levels. 01-12-2012
68 CCSVI: hope, hype or snake oil ? J Oger, M Alkhawajah Nov-2010 Title Only No abstract available. 01-12-2012
69 Multiple sclerosis-a vascular etiology? B Weir Nov-2010 Abstract The vascular hypothesis of multiple sclerosis is a biologically plausible concept. If initial observations are validated trials of angioplasty/stenting are justified in select cases. 12-26-2011
70 Jugular venous hemodynamic changes with aging CP Chung, YJ Lin, AC Chao, SJ Lin, YY Chen, YJ Wang, HH Hu Nov-2010 Abstract The authors note cerebral venous outflow insufficiency via the internal jugular vein (IJV) is associated with several neurological disorders. Research findings suggest the left IJV flow is impeded with age. 12-26-2011
71 Extracranial venous stenosis is an unlikely cause of multiple sclerosis B Yamout, A. Herlopian, Z Issa, RH Habib, A Fawaz, J Salame, A Wadih, H Awdeh, N Muallem, R Raad, A Al-Kutoubi. Nov-2010 Abstract Extracranial venous stenosis was not present in most people early in the disease and rarely involved more than one extracranial vein. It is likely to be a late secondary phenomenon. 12-26-2011
65 No association of abnormal cranial venous drainage with multiple sclerosis; a magnetic venography resonance and flow quantification study MP Wattjes, BW van Oosten, WL deGraaf, A Seewann, JC Bot, R van den Berg, BM Uitdehaag, CH Polman, F Barkhof Oct-2010 Abstract Using MRV and flow quanitification studies, findings suggestive of cranial venous outflow anomalies were frequently observed in 20 people with MS and 20 healthy controls. 12-26-2011
86 Reflux, revolution, and the role of forgotten research in medical paradigms ES Weiss Oct-2010 Full Content The current controversy in MS (auto-immune vs. vascular) is rooted in forgotten medical research. Paradigm shifts are often met with strong resistance. 01-11-2012
161 Modulation of the Postischemic Immune Response to Improve Stroke Outcome KJ Becker Oct-2010 Full Content The author notes that immune responses to brain antigens occur following stroke and lymphocytes from stroke survivors show more activity against myelin basic protein (MBP) than the lymphocytes of people with MS. Myelin- reactive T cells are also found in higher numbers among patients with cerebrovascular disease. 01-17-2012
64 Susceptibility Mapping as a Means to Visualize Veins and Quantify Oxygen Saturation EM Haacke, J Tang, J Neelavalli, YC Cheng Sep-2010 Full Content Susceptibility maps can successfully create venograms of the brain. 12-26-2011
67 Normal CSF ferritin levels in MS suggest against etiologic role of chronic venous insufficiency V Worthington, J Killestein, MJ Eiklenbloom, CE Teunissen, F Barkhof, CH Pohlman, BM Uitdehaag, A Petzhold Sep-2010 Abstract Ferritin levels measured in the CSF of people with MS and other neurological disorders does not support an etiologic role for CCSVI-related parenchymal iron deposition in MS. 12-26-2011
63 Venous and cerebrospinal fluid flow in multiple sclerosis: A case control study P. Sundstrom, A Wahlin, K Ambarki, R. Birdgander, A Eklund, J. Malm Aug-2010 Abstract Using MRI the authors found no evidence confirming the vascular hypothesis of MS. 01-03-2012
58 Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: A new paradigm and therapy for multiple sclerosis S Sclafani Jul-2010 Full Content An overview of CCSVI diagnosis, treatment, aftercare, and outcomes by a clinician.Commentary by Michael Dake and Barry Katzen. 01-03-2012
59 Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains CA Habib, W Zheng, EM Haacke, S Webb, H Nichol Jul-2010 Full Content Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology. 12-26-2011
60 Multiple sclerosis and cerebral endothelial dysfunction: Mechanisms. JS Alexander, R Zivadinov, AH Maghzi, VC Ganta, MK Harris, A Minagar Jul-2010 Abstract This paper considers the vascular connection to MS and presents the role of cerebral endothelial dysfunction in the progression of the disorder. 12-26-2011
53 No cerebro-cervical venous congestion in patients with multiple sclerosis F Doepp, F Paul, JM Valdueza, K Schmierer, SJ Schreiber Jun-2010 Full Content None of the subjects investigated in this study fulfilled more than one criterion for CCSVI. Our results challenge the hypothesis that cerebral venous congestion plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of MS 12-29-2011
40 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot case-control study. R Zivadinov, C Schirda, MG Dwyer, EM Haacke, B Weinstock-Guttman, E Menegatti, M Heininen-Brown, C Magnano, AM Malagoni, DS Wack, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, N Bergsland, S Hussein, G Poloni, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, P Zamboni Apr-2010 Abstract Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis. CCSVI found to be a possibly important mechanism related to iron deposition in the brain parenchyma of MS patients. 12-26-2011
41 Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency: report of transcranial magnetic stimulation follow-up study in a patient with multiple sclerosis. R Plasmati, F Pastorelli, N Fini, F Salvi, R Galeotti, P Zamboni Apr-2010 Abstract Report of transcranial magnetic stimulation examinations and clinical outcome for an MS patient given angioplasty for CCSVI. 12-26-2011
42 CSF dynamics and brain volume in multiple sclerosis are associated with extracranial venous flow anomalies: a pilot study. P Zamboni, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Schirda, JL Cox, AM Malagoni, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, MG Dwyer, N Bergsland, R Galeotti, S Hussein, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, M Ramanathan, R Zivadinov Apr-2010 Abstract This study reports on echo-color Doppler and MRI analysis of 16 RRMS patients, concluding that vascular haemodynamic changes occur more frequently in MS patients than controls. 01-12-2012
43 Embryological background of truncular venous malformation in the extracranial venous pathways as the cause of chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency. AB Lee, J Laredo, R Neville Apr-2010 Full Content Compares the mechanisms and clinical outcomes of truncular venous malformation (VM) of the liver and CCSVI. 01-12-2012
44 Extracranial Doppler sonographic criteria of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in the patients with multiple sclerosis. M Simka, J Kostecki, M Zaniewski, E Majewski, M Hartel Apr-2010 Abstract The aim of this open-label study was to assess extracranial Doppler criteria of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients 12-26-2011
45 Hemodynamic patterns of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis. Correlation with symptoms at onset and clinical course. I Bartolomei, F Salvi, R Galeotti, E Salviato, M Alcanterini, E Menegatti, M Mascalchi, P Zamboni Apr-2010 Abstract Authors discuss the five types of venous malformations and four major (A-D) hemodynamic patterns of anomalous extracranial-extravertebral venous outflow in the 65 MS patients studied by Zamboni. 12-26-2011
46 Internal jugular vein morphology and hemodynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis. MH Al-Omari, LA Rousan Apr-2010 Abstract Hemodynamic abnormalities and morphological changes involving the internal jugular vein are strongly associated with MS. These findings can be demonstrated by a non-invasive, cost effective Doppler ultrasound criteria. 12-26-2011
47 Iron stores and cerebral veins in MS studied by susceptibility weighted imaging. EM Haacke, J Garbern, Y Miao, C Habib, M Liu Apr-2010 Abstract Iron may serve as a biomarker of venous vascular damage in multiple sclerosis. The backward iron accumulation pattern seen in the basal ganglia and thalamus of most MS patients is consistent with the hypothesis of venous hypertension. 12-26-2011
48 Is chronic fatigue the symptom of venous insufficiency associated with multiple sclerosis? A longitudinal pilot study. AM Malagoni, R Galeotti, E Menegatti, F Manfredini, N Basaglia, F Salvi, P Zamboni Apr-2010 Abstract The re-establishment of cerebral venous return dramatically reduces chronic fatigue perception in MS patients with associated CCSVI. 12-26-2011
49 The reproducibility of colour Doppler in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency associated with multiple sclerosis. E Menegatti, V Genova, M Tessari, AM Malagoni, I Bartolomei, M Zuolo, R Galeotti, F Salvi, P Zamboni Apr-2010 Abstract Echo-colour Doppler is a powerful, non-invasive and reproducible tool for screening CCSVI-MS but it needs special training. 12-26-2011
50 Use of neck magnetic resonance venography, Doppler sonography and selective venography for diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a pilot study in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. D Hojnacki, P Zamboni, A Lopez-Soriano, R Galleotti, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Schirda, C Magnano, AM Malagoni, C Kennedy, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, R Zivadinov Apr-2010 Abstract The use of MRV for diagnosis of CCSVI in MS patients has limited value, and the findings should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by other imaging techniques such as DS and SV. 12-26-2011
51 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis : Critical analysis and first observation in an unselected cohort of MS patients. C Krogias, A Schroder, H Wiendl, R Hohlfeld, R Gold Apr-2010 Abstract This paper is critical of CCSVI theory. CCSVI cannot represent the exclusive pathogenetic factor in the pathogenesis of MS. 01-12-2012
57 Custom CGH array profiling of copy number variations (CNVs) on chromosome 6p21.32 (HLA locus) in patients with venous malformations associated with multiple sclerosis. A Ferlini, M Bovolenta, M Neri, F Gualandi, A Balboni, A Yuryev, F Salvi, D Gemmati, A Liboni, P Zamboni Apr-2010 Full Content The copy number variations contained in the HLA locus region in patients with the novel phenotype of CCSVI/venous malformation and MS were mapped in detail, demonstrating a significant correlation between the number of known CNVs found in the HLA region and the number of CCSVI-VMs identified in patients. 01-12-2012
54 Vascular comorbidity is associated with more rapid disability progression in multiple sclerosis. RA Marrie, R Rudick, R Horwitz, G Cutter, T Tyry, D Campagnolo, T Vollmer Mar-2010 Full Content Vascular comorbidity (a vascular condition in addition to MS), whether present at symptom onset, diagnosis, or later in the disease course, is associated with a substantially increased risk of disability progression in multiple sclerosis. 12-26-2011
55 Wedge-shaped medullary lesions in multiple sclerosis. W Qiu, S Raven, JS Wu, WM Carroll, FL Mastaglia, AG Kermode Mar-2010 Abstract The formation of these wedge-shaped lesions may be related to the pattern of venous drainage in the ventral medulla and raised venous pressure due to CCSVI. 12-26-2011
56 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis. O Khan, M Filippi, MS Freedman, F Barkhof, P Dore-Duffy, H Lassmann, B Trapp, A Bar-Or, I Zak, MJ Siegel, R Lisak Mar-2010 Abstract At present, invasive and potentially dangerous endovascular procedures as therapy for patients with MS should be discouraged until such studies have been completed, analyzed, and debated in the scientific arena 12-26-2011
61 Integrating CCSVI and CNS autoimmunity in a disease model for MS AF Embry Mar-2010 Full Content The mechanisms by which CCSVI and autoimmunity could potentially work together to create multiple sclerosis are described. 12-26-2011
52 Reinterpreting the magnetic resonance signs of hemodynamic impairment in the brains of multiple sclerosis patients from the perspective of a recent discovery of outflow block in the extracranial veins. M Simka, M Zaniewski Feb-2010 Abstract Perfusion MR images of MS patients should be re-interpreted with respect to extracranial venous hemodynamics. 12-26-2011
62 The many sonographic faces of the Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: How to perform doppler examination in a multiple sclerosis patient. M Simka Jan-2010 Full Content Simka describes his protocol for doppler ultrasound use to diagnose CCSVI in MS patients. 01-16-2012
37 Anomalous venous blood flow and iron deposition in multiple sclerosis AV Singh, P Zamboni Dec-2009 Full Content This paper describes how iron damages the brain in CCSVI. There is a very good table showing the similarities between CVD, a known venous problem and CCSVI. 01-12-2012
38 Diagnosis and treatment of venous malformations Consensus Document of the International Union of Phlebology (IUP)-2009. BB Lee, J Bergan, P Gloviczki, J Laredo, DA Loose, R Mattassi, K Parsi, JL Villavicencio, P Zamboni Dec-2009 Full Content The aim of this document, ratified by venous specialists from 47 nations, is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of venous malformations based on the best currently available scientific evidence. 01-12-2012
35 A comparison of 3T and 7T in the detection of small parenchymal veins within MS lesions. EC Tallantyre, PS Morgan, JE Dixon, A Al-Radaideh, MJ Brookes, N Evangelou, PG Morris Sep-2009 Abstract This paper compares use of 3T versus 7T MRI to detect small parenchymal veins within MS lesions, which can help explain the pathogenesis of MS lesions. 12-26-2011
36 Transcranial sonography of deep gray nuclei: a new outcome measure in multiple sclerosis? I Pirko, R Zivadinov Sep-2009 Title Only No abstract available. 01-12-2012
34 The severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. P Zamboni, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Schirda, JL Cox, AM Malagoni, D Hojanacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, MG Dwyer, N Bergsland, R Galeotti, S Hussein, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, R Zivadinov Jul-2009 Full Content This paper discusses the small cohort followed at JNI after being treated in Italy by Dr. Zamboni's team. Their work shows with echo-doppler and 3T MRI that the venous issues impair CSF flow. 01-13-2012
33 Venous Collateral Circulation of the Extracranial Cerebrospinal Outflow Routes P Zamboni, G Consorti, R Galeotti, S Gianesini, E Menegatti, G Tacconi, F Carinci Jun-2009 Full Content This paper addresses the presence of collateral circulation and how this affects the MS patient.The nosologic pattern of CCSVI identified and associated with MS results in significant overloading of collateral venous pathways. 01-03-2012
31 Blood brain barrier compromise with endothelial inflammation may lead to autoimmune loss of myelin during multiple sclerosis. M Simka May-2009 Abstract This paper proposes mechanisms by which the venous drainage problems in MS patients, identified by Zamboni, could trigger the immune response characteristic of MS. 12-29-2011
32 Diminished visibility of cerebral venous vasculature in multiple sclerosis by susceptibility-weighted imaging at 3.0 Tesla. Y Ge, VM Zohrabian, EO Osa, J Xu, H Jaggi, J Herbert, EM Haacke, RI Grossman May-2009 Full Content SWI may afford a noninvasive and relatively simple method to assess venous oxygen saturation so as to closely monitor disease severity, progression, and response to therapy. 12-26-2011
29 The unsolved puzzle of multiple sclerosis and venous function. C Franceschi Apr-2009 Abstract The author describes the lack of study into the influence of venous function as it relates to the CNS, and discusses Dr. Zamboni's discovery of CCSVI. 12-29-2011
30 A prospective open-label study of endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency P Zamboni, R Galeotti, E Menegatti, AM Malagoni, S Gianesini, I Bartolomei, F Mascoli, F Salvi Apr-2009 Full Content This paper summarizes results 18 months after "Liberation Procedure" on 65 MS patients.Study included 35 RRMS, 20 SPMS, 10 PPMS patients treated.CCSVI endovascular treatment significantly improved MS clinical outcome measures, especially in the RR group. 01-12-2012
28 Characterizing iron deposition in multiple sclerosis lesions using susceptibility weighted imaging. EM Haacke, M Makki, Y Ge, M Maheshwari, V Sehgal, J Hu, M Selvan, Z Wu, Z Latif, Y Xuan, O Khan, J Garbern, RI Grossman Mar-2009 Full Content In this paper the researchers consider SWI for multiple sclerosis.27 MS patients underwent scans.Researchers classified six types of lesions.This paper proposes that the amount of iron deposition in MS patients may be a key clinical biomarker. 01-04-2012
27 Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 2 S Mittal, Z Wu, J Neelavalli, EM Haacke Feb-2009 Full Content This paper considers specific disorders that SWI may be applicable for. 01-11-2012
25 Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 1 EM Haacke, S Mittal, Z Wu, J Neelavalli, Y-CN Cheng Jan-2009 Full Content This paper presents a variety of neurovascular and neurodegenerative disease applications for SWI technology. 01-11-2012
26 The value of cerebral Doppler venous haemodynamics in the assessment of multiple sclerosis. P Zamboni, E Menegatti, R Galeotti, AM Malagoni, G Tacconi, S Dall'Ara, I Bartolomei, F Salvi Jan-2009 Abstract This paper summarizes the second large doppler study.The study used doppler to test 109 MS patients and 177 controls, including people with OND and other vascular diseases. 01-04-2012
39 Rationale and preliminary results of endovascular treatment of multiple sclerosis, the liberation procedure P Zamboni, R Galeotti, E Menegatti, A M Malagoni, F Mascoli, S Dall'Ara, I Bartolomei, F Salvi Jan-2009 Full Content Preliminary results on the first group of patients treated with endovascular procedures to return cerebral circulation to normal are reported here. 12-29-2011
23 Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis P Zamboni, R Galeotti, E Menegatti, A M Malagoni, G Tacconi, S Dall'Ara, I Bartolomei, F Salvi Dec-2008 Full Content 65 MS patients and 235 controls were tested for venous abnormalities using doppler high resolution examination.The MS patients also underwent selective venography. A strong correlation was found between MS and venous abnormalities. 01-04-2012
22 Doppler Haemodynamics of Cerebral Venous Return E Menegatti, P Zamboni Sep-2008 Full Content The authors provide a protocol for combined high-resolution echo-colour-Doppler (ECD) and transcranial colour coded Doppler sonography (TCCS) examination of the veins that drain the central nervous system. 12-26-2011
21 7T MRI: New Vision of Microvascular Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis Y Ge, VM Zohrabian, RI Grossman Jun-2008 Full Content This study uses 7 Tesla MRI techniques to show association between venous components and MS lesions.Paper includes high resolution images. 01-04-2012
236 Social constructionism and medical sociology: a study of the vascular theory of multiple sclerosis M Nicolson, C McLaughlin Jun-2008 Full Content The authors discuss how different approaches to the pathogenesis of MS are based on the expertise, skills and interests of those involved. The debate about the causation and treatment of MS occurs between a large and powerful social group (neurologists, immunologists and grant funders) and groups that are weak and marginal (in this case those with vascular expertise). The burden of proof lies with the weak and marginal group. 07-11-2012
20 Hypothetical molecular mechanisms by which local iron overload facilitates the development of venous leg ulcers and multiple sclerosis lesions. M Simka, Z Rybak Apr-2008 Abstract This paper suggests that the mechanisms by which the body forms venous leg ulcers and multiple sclerosis lesions are similar. 12-26-2011
19 Raised venous pressure as a factor in multiple sclerosis. DG Talbert Feb-2008 Abstract This paper hypothesizes that excessive venous hypertension may cause the blood brain barrier breach characteristic of MS. 12-29-2011
18 Intracranial Venous Haemodynamics in Multiple Sclerosis P Zamboni, E Menegatti, I Bartolomei, R Galeotti, AM Malagoni, G Tacconi, F Salvi Aug-2007 Full Content This paper describes the first doppler study of 89 MS patients and 60 controls.This first study was not blinded; the purpose was to discover how venous drainage in MS patients might be consistently assessed with doppler. 01-04-2012
17 Cerebro spinal venous outflow impairment and multiple sclerosis: a new challenge? P Zamboni Apr-2007 Full Content Dr. Zamboni discusses how CCSVI and iron deposition can be related to MS. 01-12-2012
16 The Big Idea: Iron-dependent inflammation in venous disease and proposed parallels in multiple sclerosis P Zamboni Nov-2006 Full Content This first Zamboni paper begins the process of correlating venous disease with MS, by relating the iron deposition and inflammation found in Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) to that seen in MS. 12-26-2011
15 Multiple sclerosis as a vascular disease A Minagar, W Jy, J J Jimenez,J S Alexander Apr-2006 Full Content This paper focuses on MS as a central nervous system disease with a strong vascular component and looks at the role of cerebral endothelial cells in the loss of the blood brain barrier. 01-04-2012
14 MR Venography of Multiple Sclerosis IL Tan, RA van Schijndel, PJW Pouwels, MAA van Walderveen, JR Reichenbach, RA Manoliu, F Barkhof Jan-2000 Full Content High-resolution MR venography enables us to visualize, in vivo, the venous architecture in great detail in relation to MS lesions in the brain. 01-11-2012
13 The multiple sclerosis lesion: initiated by a localized hypoperfusion in a central nervous system where mechanisms allowing leukocyte infiltration are readily upregulated? BH Juurlink Oct-1998 Abstract A theory is presented that the MS lesion is initiated as a reduction in blood flow to a localized region of white matter. 12-26-2011
12 Iron deposits in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease brains. SM LeVine Jan-1997 Abstract Iron may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological diseases by promoting oxidative damage. 01-11-2012
98 Valve injury: a new complication of internal jugular vein cannulation M Imai, Y Hanaoka, O Kemmotsu Jun-1994 Full Content The authors found the internal jugular vein valve plays an important role in preventing retrograde blood flow to the brain 12-26-2011
94 Immunohistochemical study of vascular injury in acute multiple sclerosis AJ Wakefield, LJ More, J Difford, JE McLaughlin Feb-1994 Full Content An examination of central nervous system tissue in 3 cases found vascular changes prior to cerebral parenchymal reaction and demyelination which were not seen in controls. The authors propose vascular endothelial cell activation may be an early and pivotal event in the evolution of multiple sclerosis, and that demyelination may have an ischaemic basis in this condition. 01-11-2012
11 Perivascular iron deposition and other vascular damage in multiple sclerosis. CW Adams Feb-1988 Full Content The cerebral vein wall in multiple sclerosis is subject to chronic inflammatory damage, which promotes hemorrhage and increased permeability, and constitutes a form of vasculitis. 12-26-2011
10 Damaging venous reflux into the skull or spine: relevance to multiple sclerosis. FA Schelling Oct-1986 Abstract The importance of elucidating the neuropathological and clinical implications of undue reflux into the skull or spine is deduced from the probability of relations between localized backflow into the craniovertebral space and multiple sclerosis. 12-26-2011
8 Inflammatory vasculitis in multiple sclerosis. CW Adams, RN Poston, SJ Buk, YS Sidhu, H Vipond Jul-1985 Abstract The authors find venous inflammatory vasculitis in multiple sclerosis lesions. 12-26-2011
9 Multiple Sclerosis: The Image and its Message- The Meaning of the Classic Lesion Forms FA Schelling Jan-1985 Full Content This full length book was written by Dr. Schelling during the 1980s and later published online.Dr. Schelling's sons made the book available in its entirety in 2004 at the site ms-info.net. 01-04-2012
7 Iron deposits and multiple sclerosis. JC Walton, JC Kaufmann Sep-1984 Abstract Iron was detected in the lesions of 13 MS patients' autopsy material. 01-11-2012
6 The onset and progression of the lesion in multiple sclerosis. CW Adams Jun-1975 Abstract Adams details the characteristics of an MS lesion, including a vein at the center of the plaque. 01-04-2012
5 Vascular Pattern of Lesions Of Multiple Sclerosis RS Dow, G Berglund Jan-1942 Abstract There is a relationship between the cerebrovascular system and lesions of multiple sclerosis. 01-03-2012
4 The Venous Drainage of the Brain, With Special Reference to the Galenic System B. Schlesinger Jan-1939 Full Content Observations of venous drainage issues and their effect on the brain. 12-26-2011
2 Vascular Architecture of the Lesions of Multiple Sclerosis TJ Putnam, A Adler Jul-1937 Abstract Vascular abnormality is primary to MS lesions 12-26-2011
3 Evidences of Vascular Occlusion in Multiple Sclerosis and Encephalomyelitis TJ Putnam Jun-1937 Abstract Experimental work of Putnam shows that MS lesions can be produced by a local circulatory disturbance related to venous obstruction. 01-11-2012
1 Encephalitis and Sclerotic Plaques Produced by Venular Obstruction TJ Putnam May-1935 Abstract There is a venous obstruction factor in MS lesions. 12-26-2011

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