“Progressive MS patients are not included in the CCSVI theory of MS.”
Progressive patients are in no way excluded from CCSVI theory, research, or treatment. In fact, per Dr. Zamboni’s research1,10 and the preliminary BNAC study4, progressive MS patients appear to have a high rate of CCSVI.
Research from both Dr. Zamboni1 and Dr. Bartolomei11 have documented unique patterns of stenoses and hemodynamics for PPMS patients. However, because the number of PPMS patients in these studies has been relatively small, further research is needed. As results of the BNAC study are made available, the relationship between vascular issues and types/stages of MS should become increasingly clear.